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James I's Basilikon Doron

Source: James I. Basilikon Doron or His Majesties Instrvctions To His Dearest Sonne, Henry the Prince. [Edinburgh 1599, 7 copies only; Edinburgh, London (2 edns) 1603; London, Hanoviae, 1604 (Latin); Paris 1603, 1604 (French), according to Introduction, p ciii]. Poitical Works of James I. Ed. Charles Howard McIlwain. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1918. 3-52. Before using any portion of this text in any theme, essay, research paper, thesis, or dissertation, please read the disclaimer.

Transcription conventions: Page numbers in angle brackets refer to the edition cited as the source. Words or phrases singled out for indexing are marked by plus signs. In the index, numbers in parentheses indicate how many times the item appears. A slash followed by a small letter or a number indicates a footnote at the bottom of the page. Only notes of historical, philosophical, or literary interest to a general reader have been included. I have allowed Greek passages to stand as the scanner read them, in unintelligible strings of characters.

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Index: Items singled out for indexing are  marked  by plus signs and underlined  for access by mouseclcick.   Im the index, numbers in parentheses indicate how many times the item will occur in the text.

aduice+(1) | affability+(1) | affable+(1) | amateur+(2) | amitie+(1) | Anabaptists+(1) | anger+(1) | Antonio+(2) | bastard+(1) | benefits+(1) | burthen+(1) | Cardinall_vertues+(1) | cheere+(1) | chesse+(1) | clemencie+(1) | Clemencie+(1) | compassion+(1) | Constancie+(1) | contemplation+(1) | Cordelia+(1) | courage+(1) | courtesies+(1) | death+(1) | deeds+(1) | deeds_words+(1) | Democracie+(1) | deserts+(1) | Edmund+(1) | effeminate+(1) | Falstaff+(1) | father+(1) | fatherly_loue+(1) | Fathers+(1) | Flatterie+(1) | flattering+(1) | fortitude+(1) | Fortunae+(1) | friendship+(2) | grace+(1) | Gunnes+(1) | Hal+(2) | hazard+(1) | histories+(1) | honest+(2) | Humilitie+(1) | ingratitude+(1) | instruction+(1) | iust_quarrels+(1) | iustice+(1) | Iustice+(1) | just_war+(1) | justice_mercy+(1) | king_over_self+(1) | Lear+(2) | liberal_arts+(1) | Liberalitie+(1) | liberall+(1) | liberall_artes+(1) | louing+(1) | Magnanimitie+(1) | mean_extreme+(1) | Merchants+(1) | merrinesse+(1) | moderation+(1) | neighbours+(1) | noble_blood+(1) | obligation+(1) | oblige+(1) | office+(1) | open+(1) | order+(1) | passion+(1) | pedant+(1) | PlainDealer+(6) | plaine+(7) | plaine_and_single+(1) | plainenesse+(1) | Plainly+(1) | plainnest+(1) | poore+(1) | Portia+(1) | precise+(2) | promise+(1) | Prospero+(3) | puritanes+(1) | Puritanes+(1) | Republicke+(1) | Roman_Christian+(1) | self_criticism+(1) | Shylock+(1) |  Stoic+(1) | stoic_unfeeling+(1) | Stoicke+(1) | sufficient_unto_day+(1) | three_Kingdomes+(1) | Timon+(1) | Tyran+(1) | Tyrant+(1) | Tyrants+(1) | usthem+(1) | vtile_dulci+(1) | wrath+(1) | Wyf+(1) |



GOD giues not Kings the stile of Gods in vaine,
For on his Throne his Scepter doe they swey:
And as their subjects ought them to obey,
So Kings should feare and serue their God againe
If then ye would enjoy a happie raigne,
Obserue the Statutes of your heauenly King,
And from his Law, make all your Lawes to spring:
Since his Lieutenant here ye should remain,
Reward the iust, be stedfast, true, and plaine+,
Represse the proud, maintayning aye the right,
Walke alwayes so, as euer in his sight,
Who guardes the godly, plaguing the prophane:
And so ye shall in Princely vertues shine,
Resembling right your mightie King Diuine.

     WHOM-to can so rightly appertaine this Booke of instructions to a Prince in all the points of his calling, as well generall, as a Christian towards God; as particular, as a King towards his people? Whom-to, I say, can it so iustly appertaine, as vnto you my dearest Sonne? Since I the authour thereof, as your naturall Father, must be carefull for your godly and vertuous education, as my eldest Sonne, and the first fruits of Gods blessing towards mee in thy posteritie:  and as a King must timously prouide for your trayning vp in all the points of a Kings Office; since yee are my naturall and lawfull successour therein:  that being rightly informed hereby, of the weight of your burthen+, ye may in time beginne to consider, that being borne to be a king, ye are rather borne to onus, then honos:  not excelling all your People sofarre in ranke and honour, as in daily care and hazardous paines-taking, for tke dutifull administration of that great office, that God hath laide vpon your shoulders.  Laying so a just symmetrie and proportion, betwixt the height of your

honourable place, and the heauie weight of your great charge:  and consequently, in case of failing, which God forbid, of the sadnesse of your fall, according to the proportion of that height.  I haue therefore for the greater ease to your memory, and that yee may, at the first cast up any part that yee haue to doe with, deuided this Treatise in three parts.  The first teacheth you your duetie towards God as a Christian:  the next, your duetie in your Office as a King:  and the third informeth you how to behaue your selfe in indifferent things, which of them-selues are neither right nor among, but according as they are rightly or wrong vsed; and yet will serue according to your behauiour therein, to augment or empaire your fame and authoritie at the handes of your people.  Receiue and welcome this Booke then, as a faithfull Preceptour and counsellour vnto you:  which, because my affaires will not permit mee euer to bee present with you, I ordaine to bee a resident faithfull admonisher of you:  And because the houre of death is vncertaine to mee, {usthem+} as vnto all flesh, I leaue it as my Testament, and latter will vnto you.  Chargeing you in the presence of GOD, and by the fatherly authoritie I haue ouer you, that yee keepe it euer with you, as carefully, as Alexander did the Iliads of Homer.  Yee will finde it a iust and impartiall counsellour; neither flattering you in any vice, not importuning you at vnmeete times.  It will not come vn-called, neither speake vnspeered at: and yet conferring with it when yee are at quiet, yee shall say with Scipio, that yee are nunquam minas solus, quam cum solus.  To conclude then, I charge you, as euer yee thinks to deserue my Fatherly blessing, to follow and put in practise, as farre as lyeth in you, the precepts hereafter following. And if yee follow the contrary course, i take the Great GOD to record, that this Booke shall one day bee a witnesse betwixt mee and you; and shall procure to bee ratified in Heauen, the curse that in that case here I giue vnto you.  For I protest before that Great GOD, I had rather not bee a Father, and childlesse, then bee a Father of wicked children.  But hoping, yea, euen promising vnto my selfe, that GOD, who in his great blessing sent you vnto mee; shall in the same blessing, as hee hath giuen mee a Sonne; so make him a good and a godly Sonne; not repenting him of his mercie shewed vnto mee, I end, with my earnest prayer to GOD, to worke effectually unto you, the fruites of that blessing, which here from my eart I bestow vpon you.
Your louing Father
I.  R.

     CHARITABLE Reader; it is one of the golden Sentences, which Christ our Sauiour vttered to his Apostles, that there is nothing so couered, that shal not be reuealed, neither so hidde, that shall not be knowen; and whatsoeuer they haue spoken in darkenesse, should be heard in the light:  and that which they had spoken in the care in secret place, should, be publikely preached on the tops of the houses:/1 And since he hath said it, most trew must it be, since the authour thereof is the fountaine and very being of trewth:  which should mooue all godly and honest
Luk. 12. 


men, to be very warie in all their secretest actions, and whatsoeuer middesses they vse for attaining to their most wished ends;  lest otherwise how auowable soeuer that the marke be, whereat they aime, the middesses being discouered to be shamefull whereby they climbe, it may turne to the disgrace both of the good worke it selfe, and of the author thereof; since the deepest of our secrets, cannot be hidde from that all-seeing eye, and penetrant light, piercing through the bowels of very darkenesse it selfe.  But as this is generally trew in the actions of all men, so is it more specially trew in the affaires of Kings:  for Kings being publike persons, by reason of their office and authority, are as it were set (as it was said of old) vpon a publike stage, in the sight of all the people; where all the beholders eyes are attentiuely bent to looke and pry in the least circumstance of their secretest drifts:  Which should make Kings the more carefull not to harbour the secretest thought in their minde, but such as in the owne time they shall not be ashamed openly to auouch; assuring themselues that Time the mother of Veritie, will in the due season bring her owne daughter to perfection.
     The trew practise hereof, I haue as a King oft found in my owne person, though
I thanke God, neuer to my shame, hauing laide my count, euer to walke as in the eyes  of the Almightie, examining cuer so the secretest of my drifts, before I gaue them course, as how they might some day bide the touchstone of a publike triall.  And amongst the rest of my secret actions, which haue (vnlooked for of me) come to pub-like knowledge, it hath so fared with my BAMAIKON AUPON, directed, to my eldest son; which I wrote for exercise of mine owne ingyne, and instruction of him, who is appointed by God (I hope) to sit on my Throne after me:  For the purpose and matter thereof being onely fit for a King, as teaching him his office; and the personwhom for it was ordained, as Kings heire, whose secret counsellor and faithfull ad-
monisher it must be, I thought it no wayes conuenient nor comely, that either it should to all be proclaimed, which to one onely appertained (and specially being a messenger  betwixt two so coniunct persons) or yet that the mould whereupon he should frame his future behauiour, when hee comes both vnto the perfection of his yeeres, and possession of his inheritance, should before the hand be made common to the people, the subiect of his future happy gouernment.  And thereforefor the more secret and close keeping of them, I onely permitted semen of them to be printed, the Printer being first sworne for secrecie:  and these semen I dispersed amongst some of my trustieft seruants, to be keeped closely by them, lest in case by the iniquitie or wearing of time, any of them might haue beene lost, yet some of them might haue remained after me, as witnesses to my Sonne, both of the honest integritie of my heart, and of my fatherly affection and our naturall care towards him.  But since contrary to my ntention and expectation, as I ledy haue alreadie said, this Booke is now vented, and setfoorth to the publike view of the world, and consequently subiect to euery mans censure, as the current of his affection leades him; I am now forced, as well for esisting to the malice of the children of enuie, who like waspes sucke venome out of euery wholsome herbe; as for the satisfaction of the godly honest sort, in any thing that they may mistake therein, both to publish and spread the true copies thereof, for defacing of the false copies that are


alreadie spread, as I am enformed; as likewise by this Preface, to cleare such parts thereof, as in respect of the concised shortnesse of my Style, may be mis-In'terpreted therein.
     To come then particularly to the matter of my Booke, there are two speciall great points, which (as I am informed) the malicious sort of men haue detracted therein; and some of the honest sort haue seemed a little to mistake:  whereof the first and greatest is, that some sentences therein should seeme to furnish grounds to men, to doubt of my sinceritie in that Religion, which I have euer constantly professed; the other is, that in some parts thereof I should seeme to nourish in my minde, a vindictiue resolution against England, or at the least, some principals there, for the Queene my mothers quarrell.
     The first calumnie (most grieuous indeed) is grounded vpon the sharpe and bitter wordes, that therein are vsed in the description of the humors of Puritanes, and rash-headie Preachers, that thinke it their honour to contend with Kings, and perturbe whole kingdomes. The other point is onely grounded vpon the strait charge I giue my Sonne, not to heare nor suffer any vnreuerent speeches or bookes against any of his parents or progenitors:  wherein I doe alledge my owne experience anent the Queene my mother; affirming, that I neuer found any that were of Perfit aage the time of her reigne here, so steadfastly trew to me in all my troubles, as these that constantly kept their allegiance to her in her time.  But if the charitable Reader will aduisedly consider, both the methode and matter of my Treatise, he will easily iudge, what wrong I haue sustained by the carping at both:  For my Booke, suppose very small, being diuided in three seuerall parts; the first Part thereof onely treats of a Kings duety towards God in Religion, wherein I haue so clearely made profession of my Religion, calling it the Religion wherein I was brought vp, and euer made profession of, and wishing him euer to continue in the same, as the onely trew forme of Gods worship; that I would haue thought my sincere plainnesse in that first part vpon that subiect, should haue ditted the mouth of the most enuious Momus, that euer hell did hatch, from barking at any other part of my booke vpon that ground, except they would alledge me to be contrarie to my selfe, which in so small a volume would smell of too great weakenesse, and sliprinesse of memory.  And the second part of my booke, teaches my Sonne how to vse his Office, in the administration of Iustice and Politicke Gouernment:  The third ondy containing a Kings outward behauiour in indifferent things; what agreeance and onformitie hee ought to keepe betwixt his outward behauiour in these things, and the vertuous qualities of his minde; and how they should seruefor trunsh-men, to interprete the inward disposition of the minde, to the eyes of them that cannot see farther within him, and therefore must onely iudge of him by the outward appearance:  So as if there were no more to be looked into, but the very methode and order of the booke, it will sufficiently cleare me of that first and grieuousest imputation, in the point of Religion: since in thefirst part, where Religion is onely treated of, I speake soPlainly+.
And what in other parts I speake of Puritanes+, it is onely of their morall faults, in that part where I
speake of Policie:  declar- 


ing when they contemne the Law and souereigne authoritie, what exemplare punishment they deserue for the same.  And now as to the matter it selfe whereupon this scandall is taken, that I may sufficiently satisfie all honest men, and by a iust Apologie raise vp a brasen wall or bulwarke against all the darts of the enuious, I will the more narrowly rip vp the words, whereat they seeme to be somewhat stomacked.
     First then, as to the name of Puritanes, I am not ignorant that the style thereof doeth properly belong onely to that vile sect amongst the Anabaptists, called the Family of loue; because they thinke themselues onely pure, and in a maner without sinne, the onely trwe Church, and onely worthy to be participant of the Sacraments, and all the rest of the world to be but abomination in the sight of God.  Of this speciall sect I principally meane, when I speake of Puritans; divers of them, as Browne, Penry and others, hauing at sundrie times come into Scotland, to sow their popple amongst vs (and from my heart I wish, that they had left no schollers behinde them, who by their fruits will in the owne time be manifested) and partly indeede, I giue this style to such brain-sicke and headie Preachers their disciples and followers, as refusing to be called of that sect, yet participate too much with their humours, in maintaining the aboue-mentioned errours; not onely agreeing with the generall rule of all Anabaptists, in the contempt of the ciuill Magistrate, and in leaning to their owne dreams and reuelations; but particularly with this sect, in accounting all men profane that sweare not to all their fantasies, in making for euery particular question of the policie of the Church, as great commotion, as if the article of the Trinitie were called in very controuersie, in making the scriptures to be ruled by their conscience, and not their conscience by the Scripture; and he that denies the least iote of their grounds, sit tibi tanquam ethnicus & publicanus; not worthy to enioy the benefite of breathing, much lesse to participate with them of the Sacraments: and before that any of their grounds be impugned, let King, people, Law and all~be trode vnder foote:  Such holy warres are to be preferred to an vngodly peace:  no, in such cases Christian Princes are not onely to be resisted vnto, but not to be prayed for, for prayer must come of Faith; and it is reuealed to their consciences, that GOD will heare no prayer for such a Prince.  Iudge then, Christian Reader, if I wrong this sort of people, in giuing them the stile of that sect, whose errours they imitate: and since they are contented to weare their liuerie, let them not be ashamed to borrow also their name.
It is onely of this kinde of men that in this booke I write so sharply; and whom I wish my Sonne to punish, in-case they refuse to obey the Law, and will not cease to sturre vp a rebellion:  Whom against I haue written the more bitterly, in respect of diuers famous libels, and iniurious speaches spread by some of them, not onely dishonourably inuective against all Christian Princes, but euen reproachfull to our profession and Religion in respect they are come out vnder coulour thereof.  and yet were neuer answered but by Papists, who generally medle aswell against them, as the religion it selfe; whereby the skandale was rather doubled, then taken away.  But on the other part, I
protest vpon mine honour, I meane it not generally of all Preachers, or others, that like better of the single forme of policie in our Church, then of the many Ceremonies in the 


Church of England; that are perswaded, that their Bishops smell of a Papall supremacie, that the Surplise, the cornerd cap, and such like, are the outward badges of Popish errours.  No, I am so farre from being contentious in these things
(which for My owne part I euer esteemed as indifferent) as I doe equally loue and honour the learned and graue men of either of these opinions. It can no wayes become me to pronounce so lightly a sentence, in so old a controuersie.  Wee all (God be praised) doe agree in the grounds; and the bitternesse of men vpon such questions, doeth but trouble the peace of the Church; and giues aduantage and entry to the Papists by our diuision: But towards them, I onely vse this prouision, that where the Law is other-wayes, they may content themselues soberly and quietly with their owne opinions, not resisting to the authoritie, nor breaking the Law of the Countrey; neither aboue all, slurring any rebellion or schisme:  but possessing their soules in peace, let them preasse by patience, and well grounded reasons, either to perswade all the rest to like of their iudgements; or where they see better grounds on the other part, not to bee ashamed peaceably to incline thereunto, laying aside all prceoccupied opinions.
And that this is the onely meaning of my Booke, and not any coldnesse or cracke in Religion, that place doeth plainly witnesse, where, after I haue spoken of the faults in our Ecclesiasticall estate, I exhort my sonne to be beneficiall vnto the good-men of the Ministrie; praising God there, that there is presently a suffi cient number of good men of them in this kingdom; and yet are they all knowne to be against the forme of the English Church.  Yea, so farre I am in that place from admitting corruption in Religion, as I wish him in promoouing them, to vse such caution, as may preserue their estate from creeping to corruption; euer vsing that forme through the whole Booke, where euer I speake of bad Preachers, terming them some of the Ministers, and not Ministers or Ministrie in generall. And to conclude this point of Religion, what indifferencie of Religion can Momus call that in Mee, where, speaking of my sonnes marriage (in case it pleased God before that time to cut the threed of my life)
I plainly forewarne him of the inconuenients that were like to ensew, incase he should marry any that be of a different profession in Religion from him:  notwithstanding that the number of Princes professing our Religion be so small, as it is hard to foresee, how he can be that way, meetly matched according td his ranke.
     And as for the other point, that by some parts in this booke, it should appeare, that I doe nourish in my minde, a vindictiue resolution against England, or some principals there; it -is surely more then wonderfull vnto me, vpon what grounds they can haue gathered such conclusions.  For as vpon the one part, I neither by name nor description poynt out England in that part of my discourse; so vpon the other, I plainly bewray my meaning to be of Scottish-men, where I conclude that purpose in these termes:  That the loue I beare to my Sonne, hath mooued me to be so plaine in this argument:  for so that I discharge my conscience to him in vttering the verity, I care not what any traitour or treason-allower doe thinke of it.  And English-men could not thereby be meant, since they could be no traitours, where they ought no alleageance.  I am not ignorant of a wise and princely apophthegme, which the same Queene of Eng- 


land vttered about the time of her owne Coronation.  But the drift of that discourse doth fully cleare my intention, being onely grounded vpon that precept to my Sonne, that he should not permit any vnreuerent detracting of his pradecessours; bringing in that purpose of my mother onely for an example of my experience anent Scottish-men, without vsing any perswasion to him of reuenge.  For a Kings giuing of any doe fault the dew stile, inferres no reduction of thefaulters pardon.  No, I am by a degree but nearer of kinne vnto my mother then he is, neither thinke I myselfe, either that our vnworthie, or that neere my end, that I
neede to make such a Dauidicall testament; since I have euer thought it the dewtie of a worthie Prince, rather with a Pike, then a Penne, to write his iust reuenge:  But in this matter I haue no delite to be large, wishing all men to iudge of my future proiects, according to my by-past actions.
     Thus hauing as much insisted in the clearing of these two points, as will
(I hope) giue sufficient satisfaction to all honest men, and leauing the enuious to the foode of their owne venome; I will heartily pray thee,louing+ Reader, charitably to conceiue of my honest intention in this Booke. I know the greatest Part of the people of this whole Isle, haue beene very curious for a sight thereof:  some for the loue they beare me, either being particularly acquainted with me, or by a good report that perhappes they haue heard of me; and therefore longed to see any thing, that proceeded from that authour whom they so loued and honoured; since bookes are viue Idees of the authours minde.  Some onely for meere curiositie, that thinke it their honour to know all new reserue things, were curious to glut their eyes therewith, onely that they might vaunt them to haue seene it:  and some fraughted with causlesse enuie at the A uthour, did greedily search out the booke, thinking their stomacke fit ynough, for turning neuer so whole- some foode into noysome and infectiue humours:  So as this their great concurrence in curiositie (though proceeding from farre different complexions) hath enforced the vn-timous divulgating of this Booke, farre contrarie to my intention, as I
haue alreadie said.  To which Hydra of diuersly-enclined spectatours, I
have no targe to oppone but plainenesse+, patience, and sinceritie: plainenesse, for resoluing and satisfying of the first sort; patience, for to beare with the shallownesse of the next; and sinceritie, to defie the malice of the third with-all.  Though I cannot please all men therein, I
am contented, so that I onel please the vertuous sort:  and though they also finde not euery thing therein, so fully to answere their expectation, as the argument would seeme to require; although I would wish them modestly to remember, that God has not bestowed all his gifts vpon one, but parted them by a iustice distributiue; and that many eyes see more than one; and that the varietie of mens mindes is such, that tot capita tot sensus; yea, and that euen the very faces, that God hath by nature brought foorth in the world, doe euery one in some of their particular lineaments, differ from any other:  yet in trewth it was not my intention in handling of this purpose (as it is easie to percciue) fully to set downe heere all such grounds, as might out of the best writers haue beene alledged, and out of my owne inuention and experience addedi for the perfite institution of a King:  but onely to giue some such precepts to my owne Sonne, 


for the gouernement of this kingdome, as was meetest for him to be instructed in, and best became me to be the informer of.
     If I in this Booke haue beene too particularlyplaine+, impute it to the necessitie of the subiect, not so much being ordained for the institution of a Prince in generall, as I haue said, as containing particular precepts to my Sonne in speciall:  whereof  he could haue made but a generall vse, if they had not contained the particular diseases of this kingdome, with the best remedies for the same, which it became me best as a King, hauing learned both the theoricke and practicke thereof, more plainely to expresse, then any simple schoole-man, that onely knowes matters of kingdomes by contemplation+.
     But if in some places it seeme too obscure, impute it to the shortnesse thereof, being both for the respect of my selfe, and of my Sonne, constrained there-unto:  my owne respect, for fault of leasure, being so continually occupied in the affairs of my office, as my great burthen, and restlesse fashery is more then knowen, to all that knowes or heares of me:  for my Sonnes respect, because I know by myself, that a Prince so long as he is young, wil be so caried away with some sort of delight or other, that he cannot patiently abide the reading of any large volume:  and when he comes to a ful maturity of aage, he must be so busied in the actiue part of his charge, as he will not be permitted to bestow many houres vpon the contemplatiue part thereof.  So as it was neither fit for him, nor possiblefor me, to haue made this Treatise any more ample then it is.  Indeed I am litle beholden to the curiositie of some, who thinking it too large alreadie (as appears) for lacke of leisure to copy it, drew some notes out of it, for speeds sake; putting in the one halfe of the purpose, and leauing out the other:  not vnlike the man that alledged that part of the Psalme, non est Deus, but left out the prceceeding words, Dixit insipiens in corde suo.  And of these notes making a little pamphlet (lacking, both my methode and halfe of my matter) entituled it, forsooth, the Kings Testament, as if I had eiked a third Testament of my owne to the two that are in the holy Scriptures.  It is trew that in a place thereof, for affirmation of the purpose I am speaking of to my Sonne, I bring my slefe in there, as speaking vpon my Testament:  for in that sense, euery record in write of a mans opinion in anything (in respect that papers outliue their authors) is as it were a Testament of that mans will in that case:  and in that liue their authours) is as it were a Testament of that mans will in that case:  and in that sense it is, that in that place I call this Treatise a Testament.  But from any particular sentence in a booke, to giue the booke it selfe a title, is as ridiculous, as to style the booke of the Psalmes, the booke of Dixit insipiens, because with these wordes one of them doeth begin.
     Well, leauing these new baptizers and blockers of other mens,books, to their owne follies, I returne to my purpose, anent the shortnesse of this booke, suspecting that all my excusesfor the shortnesse thereof, shall not satisfie some, especially
-in our neighbour countrey:  who thought, that as I haue so narrowly in this Treatise touched all the principall sicknesses in our kingdome, with ouerturesfor the remedies thereof, as I
said before:  so looked they to hauefound something therein, that should haue touched the sickenesses of their state, in the like sort.  But they will easily excuse me thereof, if 


they will consider the forme I haue vsed in this Treatise; wherein I onely teach my Son, out of my owne experience, whatforme of gouernment is fittest for this kingdome:  and in one part thereof speaking of the borders, I plainly there doe excuse my selfe, that I will speake nothing of the state of England, as a matter wherein I neuer had experience.  I know indeed, no kingdome lackes her owne diseases, and likewise what interest I haue in the prosperitie of that state:  for although I would be silent, my blood and discent doeth sufficiently proclaime it.  But notwithstanding, since there is a lawfull Queene there presently reigning, who hath so long with so great wisedome and felicitie gouerned her kingdomes, as (I must in trew sinceritie confesse) the like hath not beene read nor heard of, either in our time, or since the dayes of the Romane Emperour Augustus; it could no wayes become me, farre inferiour to her in knowledge and experience, to be a busie-body in other princes matters, and to fish in other folkes waters, as the prouerbe is:  No, I hope by the contrary (with Gods grace) euer to keepe that Christian rule, To doe as I would be done to:  and I doubt nothing, yea euen in her name I dare promise, by the bypast experience of her happy gouernment, as I haue already said, that no good subiect shall be more carefull to enforme her of any corruptions stollen in in her state, then shee shall be zealous for the discharge of her conscience and honour, to see the same purged, and restored to the ancient integritie; andfurther during her time, becomes me least of any to meddle in.
     And thus hauing resolued all the doubts, so farre as I can imagine, may be moued against this Treatise; it onely rests to pray thee (charitable Reader) to interprete fauourably this birth of mine, according to the integritie of the author, and not looking for perfection in the worke it selfe.      As for my part, I onely glory thereof in this point, that I trust no sort of vertue is condemned, nor any degree of vice allowed in it:  and that (though it be not perhaps so gorgeously decked, and richly attired as it ought to be) it is at the least rightly proportioned in all the members, without any monstrous deformitie in any of them:  and specially that since it was first written in secret, andis now published, not of ambition, but of a kinde of necessitie;  it must be taken of all men, for the trezv image of my very minde, and forme of the rule, which I haue prescribed to my selfe and mine:  Which as in all my actions I haue hitherto preassed to expresse, so farre as the nature of my charge, and the condition of time would permit me:  so beareth it a discouery of that which may be lookedfor at my hand, and whereto euen in my secret thoughts, I haue engaged my selfe for the time to come.  And thus in a firme trust that it shall please God, who with my being and Crowne, gaue me this minde, to maintaine and augment the same in me and my posteritie, to the discharge owne of our conscience, the maintenance of our Honour, and weale of our people, I bid thee heartily farewell. 



As he cannot be thought worthy to rule and command others, that cannot rule and dantone his owne proper affections and vnreasonable appetites, so can hee not be thought worthie to gouerne a Christian people,{king_over_self+} knowing and fearing God, that in his owne person and heart, feareth not and loueth not the Diuine Maiestie.  Neither can anything in his gouernment succeed well with him, (deuise and labour as he list) as comming from a filthie spring, if his person be vnsanctified:  for (as that royal Prophet saith) Except the Lord build the house, they labour in vaine that build it:  except the Lord keepe the City, the keepers watch it in vaine: /1 in respect the blessing of God hath onely power to giue the successe thereunto: and as Paul saith, he planteth, Apollos watereth; but it is God onely that giueth the increase./2 Therefore (my Sonne) first of all things, learne to know and loue that God, whom-to ye haue a double obligation+; first, for thathe madeyou aman; and next, for that he made you a little GOD to sit on his Throne, and rule ouer other men.  Remember, that as in dignitie hee hath erected you aboue others, so ought ye in thankfulnesse towards him, goe as farre beyond all others.  A moate in anothers eye, is a beame into yours:  a blemish in another, is a leprouse byle into you:  and a veniall sinne (as the Papifts call it) in another, is a great crime into you.  Thinke not therefore, that the highnesse of your dignitie, diminisheth your faults (much lesse giueth you a licence to sinne) but by the contrary your fault shall be aggrauated, according to the height of your dignitie; any sinne that ye commit, not being a single sinne procuring but the fall of one; but being an exemplare sinne, and therefore drawing with it the whole multitude to be guiltie of the same.  Remember then, that this glistering worldly glorie of Kings, is giuen them by God, to teach them to preasse so to glister and shine before their people, in all workes of sanctification and righteousnesse, that their persons as bright lampes of godlinesse and vertue, may, going in and out before their people, giue light to all their steps.  Remember also, that by the right knowledge, and feare of God (which is the beginning of Wisedome,/3 as Salomon saith) ye shall know all the things necessarie for the discharge of your duetie, both as a Christian, and as a King; seeing in him, as in a mirrour, the course of all earthly things, whereof hee is the spring and onely moouer.
     Now, the onely way to bring you to this knowledge, is diligently to reade his word, and earnestly to pray for the right vnderstanding thereof.  Search the Scriptures, sayth Christ, for they beare testimonie of  me:/4 and, the whole Scripture, saith Paul, is giuen by inspiration of God, and is profitable to teach, to conuince, to correct, and to instruct in righteousnesse; that the man of God may be absolute, being made perfite vnto all good workes./5 And most properly of any other, belong-
1  Psal. 12.7.   2 1. Cor. 3. 6.    3 Prou. 9.10.    4 Iohn 5.39.    5 2Tim. 3. 16,17. 


eth the reading thereof vnto Kings, since in that part of Scripture, where the godly Kings are first made mention of, that were ordained to rule ouer the people of God, there is an expresse and most notable exhortation and commandement giuen them, to reade and meditate in the Law of `God./1   I ioyne to this, the carefull hearing of the doctrine with attendance and reuerence:  for, faith commeth by hearing,/2 sayeth the same Apostle. But aboue all, beware ye wrest not the word to your owne appetite, as ouer many doe, making it like a bell to sound as ye please to interprete:  but by the contrary, frame all your affections, to follow precisely the rule there set downe.
     The whole Scripture chiefly containeth two things:  a command, and a prohhibition, to doe such things, and to abstaine from the contrary.  Obey in both; neither thinke it enough to abstaine from euill, and do no good; nor thinke not that if yee doe many good things, it may serve you for a cloake to mixe euill turnes therewith.  And as in these two points, the whole Scripture principally consisteth, so in two degrees standeth the whole seruice of God by man:  interiour, or vpward; exteriour, or downward:  the first, by prayer in-faith towards God; the next, by workes flowing therefra before the world:  which is nothing else, but the exercise of Religion towards God, and of equitie towards your neighbour.
       As for the particular points of Religion, I need not to dilate them; I am no hypocrite, follow my footsteps, and your owne present education therein.  I thanke God, I was neuer ashamed to giue account of my profession, howsoeuer the malicious lying tongues of some haue traduced me:  and if my conscience had not resolued me, that all my Religion presently professed by me and my kingdome, was grounded vpon the plaine words of the Scripture, without the which all points of Religion are superfluous, as any thing contrary to the same is abomination, I had neuer outwardly auowed it, for pleasure or awe of any flesh.  And as for the points of equitie towards your neighbour (because that will fall in properly, vpon the second part concerning a Kings office+) I leaue it to the owne roume.  For the first part then of mans seruice to his God, which is Religion, that is, the worship of God according to his reuealed will, it is wholly grounded vpon the Scripture, as I haue alreadie said, quickened by faith, and conserued by conscience:  For the Scripture, I haue now spoken of it in generall, but that yee may the more readily make choice of any part thereof, for your instruction or comfort, remember shortly this methode.  The whole Scripture is dyted by Gods Spirit, thereby, as by his liuely word, to instruct and rule the whole Church militant to the and of the world:  It is composed of two parts, the Olde and New Testament:  The ground of the former is the Lawe, which sheweth our sinne, and containeth iustice+:  the ground of the other is Christ, who pardoning sinne containeth grace+.  The summe of the Law is the tenne Commandements, more largely delated in the bookes of Moses, in-
1. Deut. 17. 2. Rom. 10.17.


terpreted and applied by the Prophets; and by the histories+, are the examples shewed of obedience or disobedience thereto, and what praemium or paena was accordingly giuen by God:  But because no man was able to keepe the Law, nor any part thereof, it pleased God of his infinite wisedome and goodnesse, to incarnate his only Sonne in our nature, for satisfaction of his iustice in his suffering for vs; that since we could not be saued by doing, we might at least, bee saued by beleeuing.
     The ground therefore of the word of grace, is contained in the foure histories of the birth, life, death, resurrection and ascention of Christ:  The larger interpretation and vse thereof, is contained in the Epistles of the Apostles:  and the practise in the faithfull or vnfaithfull, with the historie of the infancie and first progresse of the Church is contained in their Actes.
     Would ye then know your sinne by the Lawe ? reade the bookes of Moses containing it.  Would ye haue a commentarie thereupon? Reade the Prophets, and likewise the bookes of the Prouerbes and Ecclesiastes, written by that great patterne of wisedome Salomon, which will not only serue you for instruction, how to walke in the obedience of the Lawe of God, but is also so full of golden sentences, and morall precepts, in all things that can concerne your conuersation in the world, as among all the prophane Philosophers and Poets, ye shall not finde so rich a storehouse of precepts of naturall wisedome, agreeing with the will and diuine wisedome of God.  Would ye see how good men are rewarded, and wicked punished? looke the historicall parts of these same bookes of Moses, together with the histories of Ioshua, the ludges, Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther, and Iob:  but especially the bookes, of the Kings , and Chronicles, wherewith ye ought to bee familiarly acquainted:  for there shall yee see your selfe, as in a myrrour, in the catalogue either of the good or the euill Kings.
     Would yee know the doctrine, life, and death of our Sauiour Christ? reade the Euangelists.  Would ye bee more particularly trained vp in his Schoole?  meditate vpon the Epistles of the Apostles. And would ye be acquainted with the practises of that doctrine in the persons of the primitiue Church?  Cast vp the Apostles Actes.  And as to the Apocryphe bookes, I omit them, because I am no Papist, as I said before; and indeed some of them are no wayes like the dytement of the Spirit of God.
     But when ye reade the Scripture, reade it with a sanctified and chaste heart:   admire reuerently such obscure places as ye vnderstand not, blaming onely your owne capacitie: read with delight the plaine places, and studie carefully to vnderstand those that are somewhat difficile:  preasse to bee a, good textuarie; for the Scripture is euer the best interpreter of it selfe; but preasse not curiously to seeke out farther then is contained therein; for that were ouer vnmannerly a presumption, to striue to bee further vpon Gods secrets, then he hath will ye be; for what hee thought needfull for vs to know, that hath he reuealed there:  And delyte most in reading such parts of the Scripture, as may best serue for your instruction+

BASILIKON DORON     [Basil-15]

iin your calling; reiecting foolish curiosities vpon genealogies and contentions, was which are but vaine, and profite not,/1 as Paul saith.
      Now, as to Faith, which is the nourisher and quickner of Religion, as I haue alreadie said, It is a sure perswasion and apprehension of the promises of God, applying them to your soule:  and therefore may it iustly be called, the golden chaine that linketh the faithfullsoule to Christ:  And because it groweth not in our garden, but is the free gift of God,/2 as the same Apostle saith, it must be nourished by prayer, Which is nothing else, but a friendly talking with God.
    As for teaching you the forme of your prayers, the Psalmes of Dauid are the the meetest schoole-master that ye can be acquainted with (next the prayer of our t Sauiour, which is the onely rule of prayer) whereout of, as of  most rich and pure fountaines, ye may learne all forme of prayer necessarie for your comfort at all occasions:  And so much the fitter are they for you, then for the common sort, n and in respect the composer thereof was a King:  and therefore best behoued to knowKings wants, and what things were meetest to be required by a King at Gods  hand for remedie thereof.
     Vse often to pray when ye are quietest, especially forget it not in your bed how oft soeuer ye doe it at other times:  for publike prayer serueth as much for example, as for any particular comfort to the supplicant.
     In your prayer, bee neither ouer strange with God, like the ignorant common sort, that prayeth nothing but out of  bookes, nor yet ouer homely with him, like some of the vaine Pharisaicallpuritanes+, that thinke they rule him vpon their fingers:   The former way will breede an vncouth coldnesse in you towards him, the other will breede in you a contempt of him.  But in your prayer to God speake the with all reuerence:  for if a subiect will not speake but reuerently to a King, much lesse should any flesh presume to talke with God as with his companion.
     Craue in your prayer, not onelythings spirituall, but also things temporall, sometimes of greater, and sometimes of  lesse consequence; that yee may lay vp in store his grant of these things, for confirmation of your faith, and to be an arles-peny vnto you of his loue.  Pray, as yee finde your heart moueth you, pro re nata:  but see that yee sute no vnlawfull things, as reuenge, lust, or such like:  for that prayer can not come of faith:  and whatsoeuer is dome without faith, is sinne,/ 3 as the Apostle saith.
     When ye obtaine your prayer, thanke him ioyfully therefore:  if otherwaies, beare patiently, preassing to winne him with importunitie, as the widow did the vnrighteous Iludge:  and if notwithstanding thereof yee be not heard, assure your selfe, God foreseeth that which yee aske is not for your weale:  and learne in time, so to interprete all the aduersities that God shall send vnto you; so shall yee in  the middest of them, not onely be armed with patience, but ioyfully lift vp your eyes from the present trouble, to the happie end that God will turne it to.  And when ye finde it once so fall out by proofe, arme your selfe with the experience
1. Tit. 3.9     2.  Philip. 1. 29.      3.  Rom. 14. 23- n bb nn 


thereof against the next trouble, assuring your selfe, though yee cannot in time of the showre see through the cloude, yet in the end shall ye find, God sent if for your weale, as ye found in the former.
     And as for conscience, which I called the conseruer of Religion, It is nothing else, but the light of knowledge that God hath planted in man, which euer watching ouer all his actions, as it beareth him a ioyfull testimonie when he does right, so choppeth it him with a feeling that hee hath done wrong, when euer he commiteth any sinne. And surely, although this conscience be a great torture to the wicked, yet is it as great a comfort to the godly, if we will consider it rightlyz For haue wee not a great aduantage, that haue within our selues while wee liuc here, a Count-booke and Inuentarie of all the crimes that wee shall bee accused of, either at the houre of our death, or at the Great day of  Iudgement; which when wee please (yea though we forget) will chop, and remember vs to looke vpon it; that while we haue leasure and are here, we may remember to amend; and so at the day of our triall, compeare with new and white garments washed in the blood of the Lambe,/1 as St. Iohn saith.  Aboue all them, my Sonne, labour to keepe sound this conscience, which many prattle of, but ouer few feele:  especially be carefull to keepe it free from two diseases, wherewith it vseth oft to be infected; to wit, Leaprosie, and Superstition; the former is the mother of Atheisme, the other of Heresies.  By a leaprouse conscience, I meane a cauterized conscience,/2 as Paul calleth it, being become senselesse of sinne, through sleeping in a carelesse securitie as King Dauids was after his murther and adulterie, euer til he was wakened by the Prophet Nathans similitude.  And by superstition, I meane, when one restraines himselfe to any other rule in the seruice of God, then is warranted by the word, the onely trew square of Gods seruice?
   As for a preseruatiue against this Leaprosie, remember euer once in the foure and twentie houres, either in the night, or when yee are at greatest quiet, to call your selfe to account of all your last dayes actions, either wherein ye haue committed things yee should not, or omitted the things ye should doe, either in your Christian or Kingly calling:  and in that account, let not your selfe be smoothed ouer with that flattering+ OtXavrla, which is ouerkindly a sicknesse to all mankind: but censure your selfeas sharply, as if ye were your owne enemie:{self_criticism+}  For if ye iudge your selfe, ye shall not be iudged,/3  as the Apostle saith:  and then according to your censure, reforme your actions as farre as yee may, eschewing euer wilfully and wittingly to contrare your conscience: For a small sinne wilfully committed, with a deliberate resolution to breake the bridle of conscience therein, is farre more grieuous before God, then a greater sinne committed in a suddaine passion, when conscience is asleepe.
Remember therefore in all your actions, of the great account that yee are one day to make:  in all the dayes of your life, euer learning to die, {Stoic+} and liuing euery day as it were you last;|

Omnem diem crede tibi diluxisse supremum./4

1. Reu. 7.14.     2. 1. Tim. 4. 2.     3. 1. Cor. 11.   31.    4 Horat. lib. i. Epist. 


     And therefore, I would not haue you to pray with the Papists, to be preserued from suddaine death, but that God would giue you grace so to liue, as ye may euery houre of your life be ready for death:  so shall ye attaine to the vertue of trew fortitude+, neuer being afraid for the horrour of death+, come when he list:  And especially, beware to offend your conscience with vse of swearing or lying, suppose but in iest; for othes are but an vse, and a sinne cloathed with no delight nor gaine, and therefore the more inexcusable euen in the sight of men: and lying commeth also much of a vile vse, which banisheth shame:  Therefore beware euen to deny the trewth, which is a sort of lie, that may best be eschewed by a person of your ranke.  For if any thing be asked at you that yee thinke not meete to reueale, if yee say, that question is not pertinent for them to aske, who dare examine you further? and vsing sometimes this answere both in trew and false things that shall be asked at you, such vnmanerly people will neuer be the wiser thereof.
     And for keeping your conscience sound from that sickenesse of superstition, yee must neither lay the safetie of your conscience vpon the credit of your owne conceits, nor yet of other mens humors, how great doctors of Diuinitie that euer they be; but yee must onely ground it vpon the expresse Scripture:  for consciencenot grounded vpon sure knowledge, is either an ignorant fantasie, or an arrogant  vanitie.  Beware therefore in this case with two extremities:  the one, to beleeue with the Papists, the Churches authority, better then your owne knowledge; the other, to leane with the Anabaptists+, tio your owne conceits and dreamed reuellations.
    But learne wisely to discerne betwixt points of saluation and indifferent things, betwixt substance and ceremonies; and etwixt the expresse commandement and will of God in his word, and the inuention. or ordinance of man; since all that is necessarie for saluation is contained in the Scripture:  For in any thing that is urexpressely commanded or prohibited in the booke of God, ye cannot be ouer precise+, euen in the least thing; counting euery sinne, not according to the light estimation and common vse of it in the world, but as the booke of Gad counteth ye iudgeof it. But as for all other things not contained in the scripture, spare not to vse or alter them, as the necessitie of the time shall require.  And when any of the spirituall office-bearers in the Church, speake vnto you any thing that is well warranted by the word, reuerence and obey them as the heraulds of the most high God:  but, if passing that bounds, they vrge you to embrace any of their fantasies in the place of Gods word, or would colour their particulars with a pretended zeal, acknowledge them for no other then vaine men, exceeding the bounds of their alling; and according to your office, grauely and with authoritie redact them in order againe.
    To conclude then, both this purpose of conscience, and the first part of this booke, keepe God more sparingly in your mouth, but abundantly in your heart:  be precise in effect, but sociall in shew:  kythe more by your deeds+ then by your


wordes, the loue of vertue and hatred of vice:  and delight more to be godly and vertuous indeed, then to be thought and called so; expecting more for your praise and reward in heauen, then heere:  and apply to all your outward actions Christs command, to pray and giue your almes secretly: {Wyf+} So shal ye on the one part be inwardly garnished with trew Christian humilitie, not outwardly (with the proud Pharisie) glorying in your godlinesse; but saying, as Christ commandeth vs all, when we haue done all that we can, Inutiles serui sumus:/1   And on the other part, yee shall eschew outwardly before the world, the suspition of filthie proude hypocrisie, and deceitfull dissimulation.


      BVT as ye are clothed with two callings, so must ye be alike careful for the discharge of them both:  that as yee are a good Christian, so yee may be a good King, discharging your Office (as I shewed before) in the points, of Iustice and Equitie:  which in two sundrie waies ye must doe:  the one, in establishing and executing, (which is the life of the Law) good Lawes among your people:/2 the other, by your behauiour in your owne person, and with your seruants, to teach your people by your example:/3 for people are naturally inclined to counterfaite (like apes) their Princes maners, according to the notable saying of Plato,/4 expressed by the Poet -

      Componitur orbis
      Regis ad exemplum, nec sic inflectere sensus
      Humanos edicia valent, quam vita regentis./5

      For the part of making, and executing of Lawes, consider first the trew difference betwixt a lawfull good King, and an vsurping Tyran+, and yee shall the more easily vnderstand your duetie herein:  for contraria iuxta se posita magis elucescunt.  The one acknowledgeth himselfe ordained for his people, hauing receiued from God a burthen of gouernment, whereof he must be countable:/6 the other thinketh his people ordained for him, a prey to his passions and inordinate appetites, as the fruites of his magnanimitie:/7 {Timon+} And therefore, as their ends are directly contrarie, so are their whole actions, as meanes, whereby they preasse to attaine to their endes.  A good King, thinking his highest honour to consist in the due discharge of his calling, emploieth all his studie and paines, to procure and maintaine, by the making and execution of good Lawes, the well-fare and peace of his people;/8 and as their naturall father and kindly Master, thinketh his greatest contentment standeth in their prosperitie, and his greatest suretie in hauing their hearts, subjecting his owne priuate affections and appetites to
1 Luke 10. 17.     2 Plato in Polit.     3 Isocr.  in Sym.    4 Plato in Polit.    5 Claudian in   4..cons. Hon.    6 Plato in Polit.
 7 Arist. 5. Polit.        8 Xen. 8. Cyr.


the weale and standing of his Subiects, euer thinking common interesse his chiefest particular:/1 where by the contrarie, an vsurping Tyran, thinking his greatest honour and felicitie to consist in attaining per fas, vel nefas to his ambitious pretences, thinketh neuer himselfe sure, but by the dissention and factions among his people, and counterfeiting the Saint while he once creepe in credite, will then (by inuerting all good Lawes to serve onely for his vnrulie priuate affections) frame the common-weale euer to aduance his particular:  building his suretie vpon his peoples miserie:/2 and in the end (as a stepfather and an vncouth hireling) make vp his owne hand vpon the ruines of the Republicke+./3 And according to their actions, so receiue they their reward:  For a good King (after a happie and famous reigne) dieth in peace, lamented by his subiects, and admired by his neighbours; and leauing a reuerent renowne behinde him in earth, obtaineth the Crowne of eternall felicitie in heauen./4 And although some of them (which falleth out very rarelie) may be cut off by the treason of some vnnaturall subiects, yet liueth their fame after them, and some notable plague faileth neuer to ouertake the committers in this life, besides their infamie to all posterities hereafter:  Where by the contrarie, a Tyrannes miserable and infamous life, armeth in end his owne Subjects to become his burreaux:/5 and although that rebellion be euer vnlawfull on their part, yet is the world so wearied of him, that his fall is little meaned by the rest of his Subjects, and but smiled at by his neighbours./6 And besides the infamous memorie he leaueth behind him here, and the endlesse paine hee sustaineth hereafter, it oft falleth out, that the committers not onely escape vnpunished, but farther, the fact will remaine as allowed by the Law in divers aages thereafter. It is easie then for you (my Sonne) to make a choise of one of these two sorts of rulers, by following the way of vertue to establish your standing; yea, in case ye fell in the high way, yet should it be with the honourable report, and iust regrate of all honest men.
     And therefore to returne to my purpose anent the gouernement of your Subiects, by making and putting good Lawes to execution; I remit the making of them to your owne discretion, as ye shall finde the necessitie of new-rising corruptions to require them:  for, ex malis moribus bona leges natae sunt:  besides, that in this country, wee haue alreadie moe good Lawes then are well execute, and am onely to insist in your forme of gouernment anent their execution.  Onely remember, that as Parliaments haue bene ordained for making of Lawes, so ye abuse not their institution, in holding them for any mens particulars:  For as a Parliament is the honourablest and highest iudgement in the land (as being the Kings head Court) if it be well vsed, which is by making of good Lawes in it; so is it the in-iustest Iudgement-seat that may be, being abused to mens particulars:  irreuocable decreits against particular parties, being giuen therein vnder colour of generall Lawes, and oft-times th'Estates not knowing themselues whom
1 Cic. lib. 5. de Rep.   2 Arist. 5. Polit.  3 Tacit. 4. hist.   4 Cic. 6. de Rep.  5 Arist. 5. Polit.   6 Isocr. in Sym. 


thereby they hurt./1 And therefore hold no Parliaments, but for necessitie of new Lawes, which would be but seldome:  for few Lawes and well put in execution, are best in a well ruled common-weale.  As for the matter of fore-faltures, which also are done in Parliament, it is not good tigging with these things; but my aduice is, ye fore-fault none but for such odious crimes as may make them vnworthie euer to be restored againe:/2 And for smaller offences, ye haue other penalties sharpe enough to be vsed against them.
     And as for the execution of good Lawes, whereat I left, remember that among the differences that I put betwixt the formes of the gouernment of a good King, and an vsurping Tyran; I shew how,a Tyran would enter like a Saint while he found himselfe fast vnder-foot, and then would suffer his vnrulie affections to burst foorth.  Therefore be yee contrare at your first entrie to your Kingdome, to that Quinquennium Neronis, with his tender hearted wish, Vellem nescirem literas,/3 in giuing the Law full execution against all breakers thereof but exception./4 For since ye come not to you reigne precario, nor by conquest, but by right and due discent; feare no vproares for doing of Iustice, since ye may assure your selfe, the most part of your people will euer naturally fauour Iustice:/5 prouiding alwaies, that ye doe it onely for loue to Iustice, and not for satisfying any particular passions of yours, {anger+} vnder colour thereof:/6 otherwise, how iustly that euer the offender deserue it, ye are guiltie of murther before God:  For ye must consider, that God euer looketh to your inward intention in all your actions.
     And when yee haue by the seueritie of Iustice once setled your countries, and made them know that ye can strike, then may ye thereafter all the daies of your life mixe iustice with Mercie,{Portia+} punishing or sparing, as ye shall finde the crime to haue bene wilfully or rashly committed, and according to the by-past behauiour of the committer./7 For if otherwise ye kyth your clemencie+ at the first, the offences would soone come to such heapes, and the contempt of you grow so great, that when ye would fall to punish, the number of them to be punished, would exceed the innocent; and yee would be troubled to resolue whomat to begin:  and against your nature would be compelled then to wracke many, whom the chastisement of few in the beginning might haue preserued.  But in this, my ouer-deare bought experience may serue you for a sufficient lesson:  For I confesse, where I thought (by being gracious at the beginning) to win all mens hearts to a louing and willing obedience, I by the contrary found, the disorder of the countrie, and the losse of my thankes to be all my reward.
     But as this seuere Iustice of yours vpon all offences would bee but for a time, (as I haue alreadie said) so is there some horrible crimes that yee are bound in conscience neuer to forgiue : such as Witch-craft, wilfull murther, Incest, (especially within the degrees of consanguinitie) Sodomie, poisoning, and false coine.  As for offences against your owne person and authoritie, since the fault concern-
1 12. Tab.  2 Cic.  3 de leg. pro D. s. & pro Sest. 3 Sen. de cl.   4 Plato 2. & 10 de Repub.    5 Ar. 7. pol.   6 Cic. ad Q. fr.
7 Plato in Pol. & 9. de L.   Sal. orat. ad Caesar. 


eth your selfe, I remit to your owne choise to punish or pardon therein, as your heart serueth you, and according to the circumstances of the turne, and the qualitie of the committer.
     Here would I also eike another crime to bee vnpardonable, if I should not be thought partiall:  but the fatherly loue I beare you, will make mee breake the bounds of shame in opening it vnto you.  It is then, the false and vnreuerent writing or speaking of malicious men against your Parents and Predecessors:  ye know the command in Gods lawe, Honour your Father and Mother:/1 and consequently, sen ye are the lawful magistrate, suffer not both your Princes and your Parents to be dishonoured by any; especially, sith the example also toucheth your selfe, in leauing thereby to your successors, the measure of that which they shal mete out againe to you in your like behalfe./2 I graunt wee haue all our faults, which, priuately betwixt you and God, should serue you for examples to meditate vpon, and mend in your person; but should not be a matter of discourse to others whatsoeuer.  And sith ye are come of as honourable Predecessours as any Prince liuing, represse the insolence of such, as vnder pretence to taxe a vice in the person, seeke craftily to staine the race, and to steale the affection of the people from their posteritie:  For how can they loue you, that hated them whom-of ye are come? Wherefore destroy men innocent young sucking Wolues and Foxes, but for the hatred they beare to their race? and why wil a coult of a Courser of Naples, giue a greater price in a market, then an Asse-colt, but for loue of the race? It is therefore a thing monstrous, to see a man loue the childe, and hate the Parents: as on the other part, the infaming and making odious of the parents, is the readiest way to bring the sonne in contempt.  And for conclusion of this point, I may also alledge my owne experience:  For besides the iudgments of God, that with my eyes I haue seene fall vpon all them that were chiefe traitours to my parents, I may iustly affirme, I neuer found yet a constant biding by me in all my straites, by any that were of perfite aage in my parents dayes, but onely by such as constantly bode by them; I meane specially by them that serued the Queene my mother:  for so that I discharge my conscience to you, my Sonne, in reuealing to you the trewth, I care not, what any traitour or treason-allower thinke of it.
     And although the crime of oppression be not in this ranke of vnpardonable crimes, yet the ouer-common vse of it in this nation, as if it were a vertue, especially by the greatest ranke of subjects in the land, requireth the King to be a sharpe censurer thereof. Be diligent therefore to trie, and awfull to beate downe the hornes of proud oppressours:/3 embrace the quarrell of the poore+ and distressed, as your owne particular, thinking it your greatest honour to represse the oppressours:/4 care for the pleasure of none, neither spare ye anie paines in your owne person, to see their wrongs redressed: 5 and remember of the honour-
1 Exod. 20. 12.   2 Plat. 4. de Legib.   3 Arist. 5. Polit.  4 Isocr. de reg.  5 Cic. in Of. & ad Q. fr. 


able stile giuen to my grand-father of worthie memorie, in being called the poore mans King.  And as the most part of a Kings office, standeth in deciding that question of Meum and Tuum, among his subjects; so remember when ye sit in iudgement, that the Throne ye sit on is Gods,/1 as Moyses saith, and sway neither to the right hand nor to the left; either louing the rich, or pittying the poore. {compassion+} Iustice+ should be blinde and friendlesse:  it is not there ye should reward your friends, or seeke to crosse your enemies./2
     Here now speaking of oppressours and of iustice, the purpose leadeth me to speake of Hie-land and Border oppressions.  As for the Hie-lands, I shortly comprehend them all in two sorts of people: the one, that dwelleth in our maine land, that are barbarous for the most part, and yet mixed with some shewe of ciuilitie:  the other, that dwelleth in the Iles, and are alluterly barbares, without any sort or shew of ciuilitie. For the first sort, put straitly to execution the Lawes made alreadie by me against their Ouer-lords, and the chiefes of their Clanness, and it will be no difficultie to danton them.  As for the other sort, follow forth the course that I haue intended, in planting Colonies among them of answerable In-lands subiects, that within short time may reforme and ciuilize the best inclined among them; rooting out or transporting the barbarous and stubborne sort, and planting ciuilitie in their roomes.
     But as for the Borders, because I know, if ye enioy not this whole Ile, according to Gods right and your lineall discent, yee will neuer get leaue to brooke this North and barrennest part thereof; no, not your owne head whereon the Crowne should stand; I neede not in that case trouble you with them:  for then they will be the middest of the Ile, and so as easily ruled as any part thereof.
     And that yee may the readier with wisedome and Iustice gouerne your subiects, by knowing what vices they are naturallie most inclined to, as a good Physician, who must first know what peccant humours his Patient naturallie is most subiect vnto, before he can begin his cure:/3 I shall therefore shortly note vnto you, the principall faults that euery ranke of the people of this countrey is most affected vnto. And as for England, I will not speake be-gesse of them, neuer having been among them, although I hope in that God, who euer fauoureth the right, before I die, to be as well acquainted with their fashions.
     As the whole Subjects of our countrey (by the ancient and fundamentall policie of our Kingdome) are diuided into three estates, so is euerie estate hereof generally subiect to some speciall vices; which in a maner by long habitude, are thought rather vertue then vice among them; not that cuerie particular man in any of these rankes of men, is subiect vnto them, for there is good and euill of all sorts; but that I meane, I haue found by experience, these vices to haue taken greatest holde with these rankes of men.
     And first, that I prejudge not the Church of her ancient priuiledges, reason would shee should haue the first place for orders sake, in this catalogue.
1 Deut.  ii.   2 Plat. in polit.; Cic. ad Q. frat.; Arist. i. Ret.; Plat.in Is.   3 Plato in polit. 

     The naturall sickenesse that hath euer troubled, and beene the decay of all the Churches, since the beginning of the world, changing the candlesticke from one to another, as Iohn saith, hath beene Pride, Ambition, and Auarice:  and now last, these same infirmities wrought the ouerthrow of the Popish Church, in this countrey and diuers others. But the reformation of Religion in Scotland, being extraordinarily wrought by God, wherin many things were inordinately done by a popular tumult and rebellion, of such as blindly were doing the worke of God, but clogged with their owne passions and particular respects, as well appeared by, the destruction of our policie, and not proceeding from the Princes order, as it did in our neighbour countrey of England, as likewise in Denmarke, and sundry parts of Germanie; some fierie spirited men in the ministerie, got such a guiding of the people at that time of confusion, as finding the gust of gouernment sweete, they begouth to fantasie to themselues a Democraticke forme of gouernment:  and hauing (by the iniquitie of time) beene ouerwell baited vpon the wracke, first of my Grandmother, and next of mine owne mother, and after vsurping the libertie of the time in my long minoritie, setled themselues so fast vpon that imagined Democracie+, as they fed themselues with the hope to become Tribuni plebis:  and so in a popular gouernment by leading the people by the nose, to beare the sway of all the rule.  And for this cause, there neuer rose faction in the time of my minoritie, nor trouble sen-syne, but they that were vpon that factious part, were euer carefull to perswade and allure these vnruly spirits among the ministerie, to spouse that quarrell as their owne:  where-through I was ofttimes calumniated in their populate Sermons, not for any euill or vice in me, but because I was a King, which they thought the highest euill. And because they were ashamed to professe this quarrel, they were busie to look narrowly in all my actions; and I warrant you a mote in my eye, yea a false report, was matter enough for them to worke vpon:  and yet for all their cunning, whereby they pretended to distinguish the lawfulnesse of the office, from the vice of the person, some of them would sometimes snapper out well grossely with the trewth of their intentions, informing the people, that all Kings and Princes were naturally enemies to the libertie of the Church, and could neuer patiently beare the yoke of Christ:  with such sound doctrine fed they their flockes.  And because the learned, graue, and honest men of the ministerie, were euer ashamed and offended with their temeritie and presumption, preassing by all good meanes by their authoritie and example, to reduce them to a greater moderation; there could be no way found out so meete in their conceit, that were turbulent spirits among them, for maintaining their plots, as paritie in the Church:  whereby the ignorants were emboldened (as bairdes) to crie the learned, godly, and modest out of it:  paritie the mother of confusion, and enemie to Vnitie, which is the mother of order+:  For if by the example thereof, once established in the Ecclesiasticall gouernment, the Politicke and ciuill estate should be drawen to the like, the great confusion that thereupon would arise may easily be discerned.  Take heede therefore (my Sonne) to such 


Puritanes, verie pestes in the Church and Commonweale, whom no deserts+ can oblige+, neither oathes or promises binde, breathing nothing but sedition and calumnies, aspiring without measure, railing without reason, and making their owne imaginations (without any warrant of the word) the square of their conscience.  I protest before the great God, and since I am here as vpon my Testament, it is no place for me to lie in, that ye shall neuer finde with any Hieland or Border-theeues greater ingratitude+, and moe lies and vile periuries, then with these phanaticke spirits:  And suffer not the rincipals of them to brooke your land, if ye like to sit at rest; except yee would keepe them for trying your patience, as Socrates did an euill wife./1
     And for preseruatiue against their poison, entertaine and aduance the godly, learned and modest men of the ministerie, whom-of (God be praised) there lacketh not a sufficient number:  and by their prouision to Bishoprickes and Benefices (annulling that vile acte of Annexation, if ye finde it not done to your hand) yee shall not onely banish their conceited paritie, whereof I haue spoken, and their other imaginarie grounds; which can neither stand with the order of the Church, nor the peace of a commonweale and well ruled Monarchie:  but ye shall also re-establish the olde institution of three Estates in Parliament, which can no otherwise be done:  But in this I hope (if God spare me dayes) to make you a faire entrie, alwayes where I leaue, follow ye my steps.
   And to end my aduice anent the Church estate, cherish no man more then a good Pastor, hate no man more then a proude tane; thinking it one of your fairest styles, to be called a louing nourish-father to the Church, seeing all the Churches within your dominions planted with good Pastors, the Schooles (the seminarie of the Church) maintained, the doctrine and discipline preserued in puritie, according to Gods word, a sufficient prouision for their sustentation, a comely order in their policie, pride punished, humilitie aduanced, and they so to reuerence their superiours, and their flockes them, as the flourishing of your Church in pietie, peace, and learning, may be one of the chiefe points of your earthly glory, being euer alike ware with both the extremities; as well as yee represse the vaine Puritane, so not to suffer proude Papall Bishops; but as some for their qualities will deserue to bee preferred before others, so chaine them with such bondes as may preserue that estate from creeping to corruption. The next estate now that by order commeth in purpose, according to their rankes in Parliament, is the Nobilitie, although second in ranke, yet ouer farre first in greatnesse and power, either to doe good or euill, as they are inclined.
     The naturall sickenesse that I haue perceiued this estate subiect to in my time, hath beene, a fectlesse arrogant conceit of their greatnes and power; drinking in with their very nourish-milke, that their honor stood in committing three points of iniquitie:  to thrall by oppression, the meaner sort that dwelleth neere them, to their seruice and following, although they holde nothing of them:  to maintaine
1. Xantippe. 


their seruants and dependers in any wrong, although they be not answerable to the lawes (for any body will maintaine his man in a right cause) and for anie displeasure, at they apprehend to be done vnto them by their neighbour, to take vp a plaine feide against him; and (without respect to God, King, or commonweale) to bang it out brauely, hee and all his kinne, against him and all his:  yea they will thinke the King farre in their common, in-case they agree to grant an assurance to a short day, for keeping of the peace: where, by their naturall dewtie, they are oblished to obey the lawe, and keepe the peace all the daies of their life, vpon the perill of their verie craigges.
     For remeid to these euils in their estate, teach your Nobilitie to keepe your lawes as precisely as the meanest;/1 I feare not their orping or beeing discontented, as long as yee rule well; for their pretended reformation of Princes taketh neuer effect, but where euill gouernement precedeth.  Acquaint your selfe so with all the honest men of your Barrons and Gentlemen, and be in your giuing accesse so open+ and affable+ to euery ranke of honest+ persons, as may make them peart without scarring at you, to make their owne suites to you themselue's, and not to employ the great Lordes their intercessours; /2  for intercession to Saints is Papistrie:  so shall ye bring to a measure their monstrous backes.  And for their barbarous feides, put the lawes to due execution made by mee there-anent; beginning euer rathest at him that yee loue best, and is most oblished vnto you; to make him an example to the rest.{Falstaff+} For yee shall make all your reformations to beginne at your elbow, and so by degrees to flow to the extremities of the land.  And rest not, vntill yee roote out these barbarous feides; that their effects may bee as well smoared downe, as their barbarous name is vnknowen to anie other nation:  For if this Treatise were written either in French or Latine, I could not get them named vnto you but by circumlocution.  And for your easier abolishing of them, put sharpelie to execution my lawes made against Gunnes+ and traiterous Pistolets; thinking in your heart, tearming in your speech, and vsing by your punishments, all such as weare and vse them, as brigands and cut-throates.
     On the other part, eschew the other extremitie, in lightlying and contemning your Nobilitie.  Remember howe that errour brake the King my grand-fathers heart.  But consider that vertue followeth oftest noble_blood+:  the worthinesse of their antecessors craueth a reuerent regard to be had vnto them:/3 honour them therfore that are obedient to the law among them, as Peeres and Fathers+ of your land:  the more frequently that your Court can bee garnished with them; thinke it the more your honour;/4 acquainting and employing them in all your greatest affaires; sen it is, they must be your armes and executers of your lawes:  and so vse your selfe louinglie to the obedient, and rigorously to the stubborne, as may make the greatest of them to thinke, that the chiefest point of their honour, standeth in striuing with the meanest of the land in humilitie towards you, and obedi-
 1 Arist. 5. POlit.  2.Zeno in Cyr.; Iso. in Eu.; Cic. ad Q. fra.  3 Plat. in I. Al. in Pol & 5.del 1. Arist. 2. Oecon  4 Zeno in Cyr.


ence to your Lawes: beating euer in their eares, that one of the principall points of seruice that ye craue of them, is, in their persons to practise, and by their power to procure due obedience to the Law; without the which, no seruice they can make, can be agreeable vnto you.
      But the greatest hinderance to the execution of our Lawes in this countrie, are these heritable Shirefdomes and Regalities, which being in the hands of the great men, do wracke the whole countrie: For which I know no present remedie, but by taking the sharper account of them in their Offices; vsing all punishment against the slouthfull, that the Law will permit:/1  and euer as they vaike, for any offences committed by them, dispone them neuer heritably againe:  preassing, with time, to draw it to the laudable custome of England:  which ye may the easilier doe, being King of both, as I hope in God ye shall.
    And as to the third and last estate, which is our Burghes (for the small Barrones are but an inferiour part of the Nobilitie and of their estate) they are composed of two sorts of men; Merchants+ and Craftes-men:  either of these sorts being subiect to their owne infirmities.
     The Merchants thinke the whole commonweale ordeined for making them vp; and accounting it their lawfull gaine and trade, to enrich themselues vpon the losse of all the rest of the people, they transport from vs things necessarie; bringing backe sometimes vnnecessary things, and at other times nothing at all.
They buy for vs the worst wares, and sell them at the dearest prices: and albeit the victuals fall or rise of their prices, according to the aboundance or skantnesse thereof; yet the prices of their wares euer rise, but neuer fall:  being as constant in that their euill custome, as if it were a setled Law for them.  They are also the speciall cause of the corruption of the coyne, transporting all our owne, and bringing in forraine, vpon what price they please to set on it:  For order putting to them, put the good Lawes in execution that are already made anent these abuses; but especially doe three things:  Establish honest, diligent, but few Searchers, for many hands make slight worke; and haue an honest and diligent Thesaurer to take count of them:  Permit and allure forraine Merchants to trade here :/2 so shall ye haue best and best cheape wares, not buying them at the third hand:
And set euery yeere downe a certaine price of all things; considering first, how it is in other countries:  and the price set reasonably downe, if the Merchants will not bring them home on the price, cry forrainers free to bring them.
    And because I haue made mention here of the coyne, make your money of fine Gold and Siluer; causing the people be payed with substance, and not abused with number:  so shall ye enrich the commonweale, and haue a great treasure laid vp in store, if ye fall in warres or in any straites:  For the making it baser, will breed your commoditie; but it is not to bee vsed, but at a great necessitie.
   And the Craftes-men thinke, we should be conteFnt with their worke, how bad and deare soeuer it be:/3 and if they in any thing be controlled, vp goeth the
1. Ar. 2. p0l.   2. Pl. 2. de Rep. 8. & II. de leg.   3 Plat. II de leg. 


blew-blanket:   But for their part, take example by ENGLAND, how it hath flourished both in wealth and policie, since the strangers Craftes-men came in among them:  Therefore not onely permit, but allure strangers to come heere also;/1 taking as strait order for repressing the mutining of ours at them, as was done in ENGLAND, at their first in-bringing there.
    But vnto one fault is all the common people of this Kingdome subiect, as well burgh as land; which is, to iudge and speake rashly of their Prince, setting the Commonweale vpon foure props, as wee call it; euer wearying of the present estate, and desirous of nouelties./2  For remedie whereof (besides the execution of Lawes that are to be used against vnreuerent speakers) I know no better meane, then so to rule, as may iustly stop their mouthes from all such idle and vnreuerent speeches; and so to prop the weale of your people, with prouident care for their good gouernment, that iustly, Momus himselfe may haue no ground to grudge at:  and yet so to temper and mixe your seueritie with mildnes, {justice_mercy+} that as the vniust railers may be restrained with a reuerent awe; so the good and louing Subjects, may not onely liue in suretie and wealth, but be stirred vp and inuited by your benigne courtesies+, to open their mouthes in the iust praise of your so well moderated regiment./3   In respect whereof, and therewith also  the more to allure them  to a common amitie+ among themselues, certaine dayes in the yeere would be appointed, for delighting the people with publicke spectacles of all honest games, and exercise of armes:/4   as also for conueening of neighbours+, for entertaining friendship+ and heartlinesse, by honest feasting and merrinesse+:     For I cannot see what greater superstition can be in making playes and lawfull games in Maie, and good cheere+ at Christmas, then in eating fish in Lent, and vpon Fridayes, the Papists as well vsing the one as the other:  so that alwayes the Sabboths be kept holy, and no vnlawfull pastime be vsed:  And as this forme of contenting the peoples mindes, hath beene vsed in all well gouerned Republicks:  so will it make you to performe in your gouernment that olde good sentence,

Omne tulit punctum, qui miscuit vtile_dulci+./5
    Ye see now (my Sonne) how for the zeale I beare to acquaint you with the plaine_and_single+ veritie of all things, I haue not spared to be something Satyricke, in touching well quickly the faults in all the estates of my kingdome:  But I protest before God, I doe it with thefatherly_loue+ that I owe to them all; onely hating their vices, whereof there is a good number of honest+ men free in euery estate.
    And because, for the better reformation of all these abuses among your estates, it will be a great helpe vnto you, to be well acquainted with the nature and humours of all your Subjects, and to know particularly the estate of euery part of your dominions;/6 {affability+}  I would therefore counsell you, once in the yeere to visite
1.  Plat. 9. de leg.  2. Sal. in Iug.  3. Arist 5. POL 2  4. Isoc. in Paneg.  5. Hor. de art. poet.  6. Plat. in pol. & Min.


the principall parts of the countrey, ye shal be in for the time:/1 and because I hope ye shall be King of moe countries then this, once in the three yeeres to visite all your Kingdomes; not lipening to Vice-royes, but hearing your selfe their complaints; and hauing ordinarie Councels and iustice-seates in euerie Kingdome, of their owne countriemen:  and the principall matters euer to be decided by your selfe when ye come in those parts.
     Ye haue also to consider, that yee must not onely bee carefull to keepe your subiects, from receiuing anie wrong of others within; but also yee must be careful to keepe them from the wrong of any forraine Prince without:  sen the sword is giuen you by God not onely to reuenge vpon your owne subiects, the wrongs committed amongst themselues; but further, to reuenge and free them of forraine injuries done vnto them: And therefore warres vpon iust_quarrels+ are lawful:  but aboue all, let not the wrong cause be on your side./2
      Vse all other Princes, as your brethren, honestly and kindely:  Keepe precisely your promise+ vnto them, although to your hurt:  Striue with euerie one of them in courtesie and thankefulnesse:/3{benefits+} and as with all men, so especially with them, bee plaine+ and trewthfull; keeping euer that Christain rule, to doe as yee would be done to:  especially in counting rebellion against any other Prince, a crime against your owne selfe, because of the preparatiue.  Supplie not therefore, nor trust not other Princes rebels but pittie and succour all lawfull Princes in their troubles.  But if any of them will not abstaine, notwithstanding what-soeuer your good deserts, to wrong you or your subjects, craue redresse at leasure;/4 heare and doe all reason:  and if no offer that is lawfull or honourable, can make him to abstaine, nor repaire his wrong doing; then for last refuge, commit the iustnesse of your cause to God, {Hal+} giuing first honestly vp with him, and in a publicke and honourable forme./5
      But omitting now to teach you the forme of making warres, because that arte is largely treated of by many, and is better learned by practise then speculation; I will onely set downe to you heere a few precepts therein.  Let first the iustnesse {just_war+} of your cause be your greatest strength; and then omitte not to vse all lawfull meanes for backing of the same./6 Consult therefore with no Necromancier nor false Prophet, vpon the successe of your warres, remembring on king Saules /7 miserable end:  but keepe your land cleane of all South-sayers, according to the commaund in the Law of God,/8 dilated by Ieremie.  Neither commit your quarrell to bee tried by a Duell:  for beside that generally all Duell appeareth to bee vnlawful, committing the quarrell, as it were, to a lot; whereof there is no warrant in the Scripture, since the abrogating of the olde Lawe:  it is specially moste vn-
1 Tacit. 7. an. Mart.  2 Xeno. 8. Cyr.; Arist. 5. pol.; Polib. 6; Dion. Hal. de Romul.  3 Isoc. in Plat. & Parag.  4 Arist. ad A.; Varr. ii. de V. P. R.; Cic. 2. Of.; Liu. lib. 4.   5 Liu. lib. i; Cic. eod.   6 Prop. 4. Eleg.; Lucan 7; Varro ii. de V. P. R.
7 1. Sam. 31.   8 Deut. 18. 


lawfull in the person of a King;/1 who being a publicke person hath no power therefore to dispose of himselfe, in respect, that to his preseruation or fall, the safetie or wracke of the whole common-weale is necessarily coupled, as the body is to the head.
     Before ye take on warre, play the wise Kings part described by Christ; foreseeing how ye may beare it out with all necessarie prouision:/2 especially remember, that money is Neruus belli.  Choose old experimented Captaines, and yong able souldiers.  Be extreamely strait and seuere in martiall Discipline, as well for keeping of order, which is as requisite, as hardinesse in the warres, and punishing of slouth, which at a time may put the whole armie in hazard; as likewise for repressing of mutinies, which in warres are wonderfull dangerous.  And looke to the Spaniard, whose great successe in all his warres, hath onely come through straitnesse of Discipline and order:  for such errours may be committed in the warres, as cannot be gotten mended againe./3
      Be in your owne person walkrife, diligent, and painefull; vsing the aduice+ of such as are skilfullest in the craft, as ye must also doe in all other.  Be homely with your souldiers as your companions, for winning their hearts; and extreamly liberall+, for then is no time of sparing.  Be cold and foreseeing in deuising, constant in your resolutions, and forward and quicke in your executions./4 Fortifie well your Campe, and assaile not rashly without an aduantage:  neither feare not lightly your enemie./5 Be curious in deuising stratagems, but alwayes honestly:  for of any thing they worke greatest effects in the warres, if secrecie be ioyned to inuention./6 And once or twise in your owne person hazard+ your selfe fairely; but, hauing acquired so the fame of courage+ and magnanimitie, make not a daily soudier of your selfe, exposing rashly your person to euery perill:  but conserue your selfe thereafter for the weale of your people, for whose sake yee must more care for your selfe, then for your owne./7
      And as I haue counselled you to be slow in taking on a warre, so aduise I you to be slow in peace-making./8 Before ye agree, looke that the ground of your warres be satisfied in your peace; and that ye see a good suretie for you and your people:  otherwaies a honourable and iust warre is more tollerable, then a dishonourable and dis-aduantageous peace./9
      But it is not enough to a good King, by the scepter of good Lawes well execute to gouerne, and by force of armes to protect his people; if he ioyne not therewith his vertuous life in his owne person, and in the person of his Court and company; by good example alluring his Subjects to the loue of vertue, and hatred of vice.  And therefore (my Sonne) sith all people are naturally inclined to follow
1 Plutar.  in Sert. & Ant.   2 Luke 14.   3 Thuc. 2.  Sal.  in lug.; Cic.  pro l. Man.; Demost. olyn. 2; Liu. li. 30; Vegct I; Caes.   1 & 3. de bel. ciuili; Proh. in Thras.   4 Caes. 31. de bello ciu.; Liu. 1. 7.; Xen. 1 & 5; Cyr. & de discp. mi.; Xen. in Ages.   5 Pol. 1. 5.   6 Xen. 1. Cyr. Thuc. 5.   7 Isoc. ad Phil.; Pla. 9. de leg.; Liu. 1. 22. & 31; Tac. 2. his.; Plut. de fort.   8 Isocr. in Arch. 9 Polib. 3; Cic 1. Of. & 7. Phil.; Tac. 4. his. 


their Princes example (as I shewed you before) let it not be said, that ye command others to keepe the contrary course to that, which in your owne person ye practise, making so your wordes and deeds to fight together:/1 but by the contrary, let your owne life be a law-booke and a mirrour to your people; that therein they may read the practise of their owne Lawes; and therein they may see, by your image, what life they should leade.
     And this example in your owne life and person, I likewise diuide in two parts:  The first, in the gouernment of your Court and followers, in all godlinesse and vertue:  the next, in hauing your owne minde decked and enriched so with all vertuous qualities, that therewith yee may worthily rule your people:  For it is not ynough that ye haue and retaine (as prisoners) within your selfe neuer so many good qualities and vertues, except ye employ them, and set them on worke, for the weale of them that are committed to your charge:  Virtutis enim laus omnis in actione consistit./2 {deeds_words+}
     First then, as to the gouernment of your Court and followers, King Dauid sets downe the best precepts, that any wise and Christian King can practise in that point:  For yee ought to haue a great care for the ruling well of all your Subjects, so ought yee to haue a double care for the ruling well of your owne seruants;/3 since vnto them yee are both a Politicke and Oeconomicke gouernour.  And as euery one of the people will delite to follow the example of any of the Courteours, as well in euill as in good:/4 so what crime so horrible can there be committed and ouer-seene in a Courteour, that will not be an exemplare excuse for any other boldly to commit the like? And therfore in two points haue ye to take good heed anent your Court and houshold:  first, in choosing them wisely; next, in carefully ruling them whom ye haue chosen.
     It is an olde and trew saying, That a kindly Auer will neuer become a good horse:  for albeit good education and company be great helpes to Nature,/5 and education be therefore most iustly called altera natura, yet is it euill to get out of the flesh,/6 that is bred in the bone, as the olde prouerbe sayth.  Be very ware then in making choice of your seruants and companie: -

      Turpius eiicitur, quam non admittitur hospes:/7

and many respects may lawfully let an admission, that will not be sufficient causes of depriuation.
     All your seruants and Court must be composed partly of minors such as young Lords, to be brought vp in your company, or Pages and such like; and partly of men of perfit aage, for seruing you in such roumes, as ought to be filled with men of wisedome and discretion. For the first sort, ye can doe no more, but choose them within aage, that are come of a good and vertuous kinde,/8 In fide
1 Pl. in Pol. & 4. de leg.   2 Plat. in Theae. & Euth.; Arist. 1. Eth.; Cic. in Offic.   3 Psal. 101.   4 Cic. ad Q frat.
5 Plat. 5. de Leg.   6 Arisr. 2. oecon.  7 Ouid. 5. de Trist.  8 Arist. 1. & 5. polit. 


parentum, as Baptisme is vsed:  For though anima non venit ex traduce,/1 but is immediatly created by God, and infused from aboue; yet it is most certaine, that vertue or vice will oftentimes, with the heritage, be transferred from the parents to the posteritie, and runne on a blood (as the Prouerbe is) the sickenesse of the minde becomming as kindly to some races, as these sickenesses of the body, that infect in the seede:/2 Especially choose such minors as are come of a trew and honest race, and haue not had the house whereof they are descended, infected with falsehood./3
      And as for the other sort of your companie and seruants, that ought to be of perfit aage; first see that they be of a good fame and without blemish/4 otherwise, what can the people thinke, but that yee haue chosen a company vnto you, according to your owne humour, and so haue preferred these men, for the loue of their vices and crimes, that ye knew them to be guiltie of? For the people that see you not within, cannot iudge of you, but according to the outward appearance of your actions and companie, which onely is subiect to their sight:/5 And next, see that they be indued with such honest qualities, {PlainDealer+} as are meete for such offices, as ye ordaine them to serue in; that your iudgement may be knowen in imploying euery man according to his giftes:/6 And shortly, follow good king Dauids counsell in the choise of your seruants, by setting your eyes vpon the faithfull and vpright of the land to dwell with you./7
      But here I must not forget to remember, and according to my fatherly authoritie, to charge you to preferre specially to your seruice, so many as haue trewly serued me, and are able for it: the rest, honourably to reward them, preferring their posteritie before others, as kindliest:  so shall ye not onely be best serued, (for if the haters of your parents cannot loue you, as I shewed before, it followeth of necessitie their louers must loue you) but further, ye shall kyth your thankefull memorie of your father, and procure the blessing of these olde seruants, in not missing their olde master in you; which otherwise would be turned in a prayer for me, and a curse for you.  Vse them therefore when God shall call me, as the testimonies of your affection towards me; trusting and aduancing those farthest, whom I found faithfullest:  which ye must not discerne by their rewards at my hand (for rewards as they are called Bona fortunae, so are they subiect vnto fortune) but according to the trust I gaue them; hauing oft-times had better heart then hap to the rewarding of sundry:  And on the other part, as I wish you to kyth your constant loue towards them that I loued, so desire I you to kyth in the same measure, your constant hatred to them that I hated:  I meane, bring not home, nor restore not such, as ye finde standing banished or fore-faulted by me. The contrary would kyth in you ouer great a contempt of me, and lightnesse in
1 Cic. ad Q. frat.   2 Witnesse the experience of the late house of Gowrie.  3 Plat. 6. de leg.; Arist. 2. oecon. & 1. pol.
4 Plat. 6. de leg.; Isocr. in pan.; Arist.   5. pol.   5 Dem. 2. ph.   6 Plat.   7. de Rep.; 3. et 12. de Leg.; Arist. 5. et 6. polit.   7 Psal. 101. {PlainDealer+


your owne nature:  for how can they be trew to the Sonne, that were false to the Father?
     But to returne to the purpose anent the choise of your seruants, yee shall by this wise forme of doing, eschew the inconuenients, that in my minoritie I fell in, anent the choise of my seruants:  For by them that had the command where I was brought vp, were my seruants put vnto mee; not choosing them that were meetest to serue me, but whom they thought meetest to serue their turne about me, as kythed well in many of them at the first rebellion raised against mee, which compelled mee to make a great alteration among my seruants.  And yet the example of that corruption made mee to be long troubled there-after with solliciters, recommending seruants vnto me, more for seruing in effect, their friends that put them in, then their master that admitted them.  Let my example then teach you to follow the rules here set downe, choosing your seruants for your owne vse, and not for the vse of others:/1 And since ye must bee communis parens to all your people, so choose your seruants indifferently out of all quarters; not respecting other mens appetites, but their owne qualilies:  For as ye must command all, so reason would, ye should be serued out of al, as ye please to make choice.
     But specially take good heed to the choice of your seruants, that ye preferre to the offices of the Crowne and estate: for in other offices yee haue onely to take heede to your owne weale;/2  but these concerne likewise the weale of your people; for the which yee must bee answerable to God.  Choose then for all these Offices, men of knowen wisedome, honestie and good conscience; well practised in the points of the craft, that yee ordaine them for, and free of all factions and partialities; but specially free of that filthie vice of Flatterie+, the pest of all Princes, and wracke of Republicks:/3 For since in the first part of this Treatise, I fore-warned you to be at warre with your owne inward flatterer OtxaVTt'a, how much more should ye be at war with outward flatterers, who are nothing so sib to you, as your selfe is; by the selling of such counterfeit wares, onely preassing to ground their greatnesse vpon your ruines?/4 And therefore bee carefull to preferre none, as yee will bee answerable to God but onely for their worthinesse:  But specially choose honest, diligent, meane, but responsall men, to bee your receiuers in money matters:  meane I say, that ye may when yee please, take a sharpe account of their intromission, without perill of their breeding any trouble to your estate:  for this ouersight hath beene the greatest cause of my mis-thriuing in money matters.  Especially, put neuer a forrainer, in any principall office of estate:  for that will neuer faile to stirre vp sedition and enuie in the countreymens hearts, both against you and him:  But (as I saide before) if God prouide you with moe countries then this; choose the borne-men of euery countrey, to bee your chief counsellers therein./5
1 Arist. 2. Pol.    2 Plat. de repub.; Cic. ad Q. frat.; Isoc. in Panath. ad Nic. & de pace.    3 Thuc. 6; Plutar. in pol.
4 Plat. in Phedr. & Menex.; Arist.  5 pol.; Isoc. in Sym.; Tacit. 3. hist.; Curt. 8.   5 Arist. 5. pol.; Cic. ad Q. frat. 


     And for conclusion of my aduice anent the choice of your feruants, delight to be serued with men of the noblest blood that may bee had:  for besides that their seruice shall breed you great good-will and least enuie, contrarie to that of startvps ye shall oft finde vertue follow noble races, as I haue said before speaking of the Nobilitie./1
      Now, as to the other point, anent your gouerning of your seruants when yee haue chosen them; make your Court and companie to bee a patterne of godlinesse and all honest vertues, to all the rest of the people./2   Bee a daily watch-man ouer your seruants, that they obey your lawes precisely:/3 For how can your lawes bee kept in the countrey, if they be broken at your eare? Punishing the breach thereof in a Courteour, more seuerely, then in the person of any other of your subjects:  and aboue all, suffer none of them (by abusing their credite with you to oppresse or wrong any of your subiects.  Be homely or strange with them, as ye thinke their behauiour deserueth, and their nature may beare with./4 Thinke a quarrellous man a pest in your companie.  Bee carefull euer to preferre the gentilest natured and trustiest, to the inwardest Offices about you, especially in your chalmer./5 Suffer none about you to meddle in any mens particulars, but like the Turkes Ianisares, let them know no father but you, nor particular but yours./6 And if any will medde in their kinne or friends quarrels, giue them their leaue:  for since ye must be of no surname nor kinne, but equall to all honest men; it becommeth you not to bee followed with partiall or factious seruants.  Teach obedience to your seruants, and not to thinke themselues ouer-wise:/7 and, as when any of them deserueth it, ye must not spare to put them away, so, without a seene cause, change none of them.  Pay them, as all others your subiects, with praemium or poena as they deserue, which is the very ground-stone of good gouernement.  Employ euery man as ye thinke him qualified, but vse not one in all things, lest he waxe proude, and be enuied of his fellowes. Loue them best, that are plainnest+ with you, and disguise not the trewth for all their kinne:  suffer none to be euill tongued, nor backbiters of them they hate:  command a hartly and brotherly loue among all them that serue you./8 And shortly, maintaine peace in your Court, bannish enuie, cherish modestie, bannish deboshed insolence, foster humilitie, and represse pride:  setting downe such a comely and honourable order in all the points of your seruice; that when strangers shall visite your Court, they may with the Queene of Sheba, admire your wisedome in the glorie of your house,/9 and comely order among your seruants.
     But the principall blessing that yee can get of good companie, will stand in your marrying of a godly and vertuous wife: for shee must bee nearer vnto you,
1 Plat. in i. Al. in pol. & 5. de legib.; Arist. 2. oecon.  2 Isocr. in Areop.    3 Idem in Panath.   4 Arist. 2. pol.; Tacit. 1. hist.
5 Val. lib. 2; Curt. 4.   6 Demost. 8. phil.; Sal. in Cat.; Liu. 22.   7 Tacit eod. & i. An.   8 Ar. 5. polit.; Tacit. in Ag.;
Dion li. 52; Xeno. in Ages.; Isoc. in Sym. et ad Ph.; Id.  de permutat.; Cic. ad Q. frat.   9 1. King. 10. 


then any other companie, being Flesh of your flesh, and bone of your bone,/1 as Adam saide of Heuah.  And because I know not but God may call me, before ye be readie for Mariage; I will shortly set downe to you heere my aduice therein.
     First of all consider, that Mariage is the greatest earthly felicitie or miserie, that can come to a man, according as it pleaseth God to blesse or curse the same.  Since then without the blessing of God, yee cannot looke for a happie successe in Mariage, yee must bee carefull both in your preparation for it, and in the choice and vsage of your wife, to procure the same.  By your preparation, I meane, that yee must keepe your bodie cleane and vnpolluted, till yee giue it to your wife, whom-to onely it belongeth.  For how can ye iustly craue to bee ioyned with a pure virgine, if your bodie be polluted? why should the one halfe bee cleane, and the other defiled? And although I know, fornication is thought but a light and veniall sinne, by the most part of the world, yet remember well what I said to a you in my first Booke anent conscience, and count euery sinne and breach of Gods law, not according as the vaine world esteemeth of it, but as God the Iudge and maker of the lawe accounteth of the same.  Heare God commanding by the mouth of Paul, to abstaine from fornication, declaring that the fornicator shall not inherite the Kingdome of heauen:/2 and by the mouth of Iohn, reckoning our fornication amongst other grieuous sinnes, that debarre the committers amongst dogs and swine, from entry in that spirituall and heauenly Ierusalem./3 And consider, if a man shall once take vpon him, to count that light, which God calleth heauie; and veniall that, which God calleth grieuous; beginning first to measure any one sinne by the rule of his lust and appetites, and not of his conscience; what shall let him to doe so with the next, that his affections shall stirre him to, the like reason seruing for all:  and so to goe forward till he place his whole corrupted affections in Gods roome? And then what shall come of him; but, as a man giuen ouer to his owne filthy affections, shall perish into them? And because wee are all of that nature, that sibbest examples touch vs neerest, consider the difference of successe that God granted in the Mariages of the King my grand-father, and me your owne father: the reward of his incontinencie, (proceeding from his euill education) being the suddaine death at one time of two pleasant yong Princes; and a daughter onely borne to succeed to him, whom hee had neuer the hap, so much as once to see or blesse before his death:  leauing a double curse behinde him to the land, both a Woman of sexe, and a new borne babe of aage to reigne ouer them.  And as for the blessing God hath bestowed on mee, in granting me both a greater continencie, and the fruits following there-upon, your selfe, and sib folkes to you, are (praise be to God) sufficient witnesses:  which, I hope the same God of his infinite mercie, shall continue and increase, without repentance to me and my posteritie.  Be not ashamed then, to keepe cleane your body, which is the Temple of the holy Spirit,/4 notwithstanding all vaine allurements to
1 Gen. 2. 23.   2 1. Cor. 6. 10.    3 Reuel. 22. 15.    4 1. Cor. 6. 19. 


the contrary, discerning trewly and wisely of euery vertue and vice, according to the trew qualities thereof, and not according to the vaine conceits of men.
     As for your choise in Mariage, respect chiefly the three causes, wherefore Mariage was first ordained by God; and then ioyne three accessories, so farre as they may be obtained, not derogating to the principalles.
     The three causes it was ordained for, are, for staying of lust, for procreation of children, and that man should by his Wife, get a helper like himselfe. Deferre not then to Marie till your aage:  for it is ordained for quenching the lust of your youth:/1 Especially a King must tymouslie Marie for the weale of his people./2 Neither Marie yee, for any accessory cause or worldly respects, a woman vnable, either through aage, nature, or accident, for procreation of children:  for in a King that were a double fault, as well against his owne weale, as against the weale of his people.  Neither also Marie one of knowne euill conditions, or vicious education:  for the woman is ordained to be a helper, and not a hinderer to man.
     The three accessories, which as I haue said, ought also to be respected:, without derogating to the principall causes, are beautie, riches, and friendship+ by alliance, which are all blessings of God.  For beautie increaseth your loue to your Wife, contenting you, the better with her, without caring for others:  and riches and great alliance, doe both make her the abler to be a helper vnto you./3 But if ouer great respect being had to these accessories, the principall causes bee ouerseene (which is ouer oft practised in the world) as of themselues they are a blessing being well vsed; so the abuse of them will turne them in a curse. For what can all these worldly respects auaile when a man shall finde himselfe coupled with a diuel, to be one flesh with him, and the halfe marrow in his bed? Then (though too late) shall he finde that beautie without bountie, wealth without wisdome, and great friendship without grace and honestie; are but faire shewes, and the deceitfull masques of infinite miseries.
     But haue ye respect, my Sonne, to these three speciall causes in your Mariage, which flow from the first institution thereof, & coetera omnia adjicientur vobis./4 And therefore I would rathest haue you to Marie one that were fully of your owne Religion; her ranke and other qualities being agreeable to your estate.  For although that to my great regrate, the number of any Princes of power and account, professing our Religion, bee but very small; and that therefore this aduice seemes to be the more strait and difficile:  yet ye haue deeply to weigh, and consider vpon these doubts, how ye and your wife can bee of one flesh, and keepe vnitie betwixt you, being members of two opposite Churches:  disagreement in Religion bringeth euer with it, disagreement in maners; and the dissention betwixt your Preachers and hers, wil breed and foster a dissention among your subiects, taking their example from your family; besides the perill of the euill education of your children.  Neither pride you that ye wil be able to frame and
1 Arist. 7.  pol.   2 Id. eod.    3 AEg. Ro. 2. de reg. pr.    4 Matth. 13. 


make her as ye please:  that deceiued Solomon the wisest King that euer was; the grace of Perseuerance, not being a flower that groweth in our garden.
     Remember also that Mariage is one of the greatest actions that a man doeth in all his time, especially in taking of his first Wife:  and if hee Marie first basely beneath his ranke, he will euer be the lesse accounted of thereafter.  And lastly, remember to choose your Wife as I aduised you to choose your seruants:  that she be of a whole and cleane race, not subiect to the hereditary sicknesses, either of the soule or the body:  For if a man wil be careful to breed horses and dogs of good kinds, how much more careful should he be, for the breed of his owne loines?/1 So shal ye in your Mariage haue respect to your conscience, honour, and naturall weale in your successours.
     When yee are Maried, keepe inuiolably your promise made to God in your Mariage; which standeth all in doing of one thing, and abstayning from another:  to treat her in all things as your wife, and the halfe of your selfe; and to make your body (which then is no more yours, but properly hers) common with none other./2 I trust I need not to insist here to disswade you from the filthy vice of adulterie:  remember onely what solemne promise yee make to God at your Mariage:  and since it is onely by the force of that promise that your children succeed to you, which otherwayes they could not doe; equitie and reason would, ye should keepe your part thereof./3 God is euer a seuere auenger of all periuries; and it is no oath made in iest, that giueth power to children to succeed to great kingdomes.  Haue the King my grand-fathers example before your eyes, who by his adulterie, bred the wracke of his lawfull daughter and heire; in begetting that bastard+ [Earl of Murray, Moray, Protestant] {Edmund+} who vnnaturally rebelled, and procured the ruine of his owne Souerane and sister.  And what good her posteritie hath gotten sensyne, of some of that vnlawfull generation, Bothuell his treacherous attempts can beare witnesse. Keepe praecisely then your promise made at Mariage, as ye would wish to be partaker of the blessing therein.
     And for your behauiour to your Wife, the Scripture can best giue you counsell therein:  Treat her as your owne flesh, command her as her Lord, cherish her as your helper, rule her as your pupill, and please her in all things reasonable; but teach her not to be curious in things that belong her not:/4 Ye are the head, shee is your body; It is your office to command, and hers to obey; but yet with such a sweet harmonie, as shee should be as ready to obey, as ye to command; as willing to follow, as ye to go before; your loue being wholly knit vnto her, and an her affections louingly bent to follow your will.
     And to conclude, keepe specially three rules with your Wife:  first, suffer her neuer to meddle with the Politicke gouernment of the Commonweale, but holde her at the Oeconomicke rule of the house; and yet all to be subiect to your direc-
1 Pla. 5. de Rep.; Cic.   2. de Diu.; Arist. de gen. An.; Lucr. 4. 2 Pl. 11. de leg.; Is. in Sym.   3 Cic. 2. de leg.
4 Arist. 8. AEth. & 1. Pol.; Xen. & Arist. in oeco. 


tion:/1 keepe carefully good and chaste company about her, for women are the frailest sexe; and be neuer both angry at once but when ye see her in passion, ye should with reason danton yours:  for both when yee are setled, ye are meetest to iudge of her errours; and when she is come to her selfe, she may be best made to apprehend her offence, and reuerence your rebuke.
     If God send you succession, be carefull for their vertuous education:  loue them as ye ought, but let them know as much of it, as the gentlenesse of their nature will deserue; contayning them euer in a reuerent loue and feare of you.  And in case it please God to prouide you to all these three_Kingdomes+, make your eldest sonne Isaac, leauing him all your kingdomes; and prouide the rest with private possessions: Otherwayes by deuiding your kingdomes, yee shall leaue the seed of diuision and discord among your posteritie;/2 {Lear+} as befell to this Ile, by the diuision and assignement thereof, to the three sonnes of Brutus, Locrine, Albanact, and Camber./3 But if God giue you not succession, defraud neuer the nearest by right, what-soeuer conceit yee haue of the person:  For Kingdomes are euer at Gods disposition, {Antonio+{Hal+} and in that case we are but liue-rentars, lying no more in the Kings, nor peoples hands to dispossesse the righteous heire.
     And as your company should be a paterne to the rest of the people, so should your person be a lampe and mirrour to your company:/4  giuing light to your seruants to walke in the path of vertue, and representing vnto them such worthie qualities, as they should preasse to imitate.
     I need not to trouble you with the particular discourse of the foure Cardinall_vertues+, it is so troden a path:  but I will shortly say vnto you; make one of them, which is Temperance, Queene {Cordelia+} of all the rest within you.  I meane not by the vulgar interpretation of Temperance, which onely consists in gustu & tactu, by the moderating of these two senses:/5 but, I meane of that wise moderation, that first commaunding your selfe, shall as a Queene, command all the affections. and passions of your minde, and as a Phisician, wisely mixe all your actions according thereto.  Therefore, not onely in all your affections and passions, but euen in your most vertuous actions, make euer moderation to be the chiefe ruler:  For although holinesse be the first and most requisite qualitie of a Christian, as proceeding from a feeling feare and trew knowledge of God:  yet yee remember how in the conclusion of my first booke I aduised you to moderate al your outward actions flowing there-fra.  The like say I now of Iustice, which is the greatest vertue that properly belongeth to a Kings office.
     Vse Iustice, but with such moderation, as it turne not in Tyrannie:  otherwaies summum Ius, is summa iniuria.  As for example:  if a man of a knowen honest life, be inuaded by brigands or theeues for his purse, and in his owne defence slay
1 Arist. 1  rhet.; Plu.  in Menon.; AEgid. R. de reg. pr.[;] Plu. [sic] 5. de Rep. & 7. de leg.   2 Plu. in Thes. 4. & 5. deRep. & 6. & 7. de l. Arist. 7. Pol.   3 Polid. 1.   4 Plu. in Pol.; Cic. ad Q. frat. 5 Arist. 5. pol.; Pol. 6.; Cic. 1. Off. 2. de inuen. & in Par.   6 Pla. 4. de Leg.; Arist. 1. mag. mor.; Cic. 1. off. pro Rab. & ad Q. frat.; Seneca de cl. 


one of them, they beeing both moe in number, and also knowen to bee deboshed and insolent liuers; where by the contrarie, hee was single alone, beeing a man of sound reputation:  yet because they were not at the home, or there was no eyewitnesse present that could verifie their first inuading of him, shall hee therefore lose his head? And likewise, by the law-burrowes in our lawes, men are prohibited vnder great pecuniall paines, from any wayes inuading or molesting their neighbours person or bounds:  if then his horse breake the halter, and pastour in his neighbours medow, shall he pay two or three thousand pounds for the wantonnesse of his horse, or the weaknesse of his halter? Surely no:  for lawes are ordained as rules of vertuous and sociall huing, and not to bee snares to trap your good subjects: {Shylock+} and therefore the lawe must be interpreted according to the meaning, and not to the literall sense thereof:  Nam ratio est anima legis./1
      And as I said of Iustice, so say I ofClemencie+, Magnanimitie+, Liberalitie+, Constancie+, Humilitie+, and all other Princely vertues; Nam in medio stat virtus.  And it is but the craft of the Diuell that falsly coloureth the two vices that are on either side thereof, with the borrowed titles of it, albeit in very deede they haue no affinitie therewith and the two extremities themselues, although they seeme contrarie, yet growing to the height, runne euer both in one:  For in infinites omnia concurrunt; and what difference is betwixt extreame tyrannie, delighting to destroy all mankinds; and extreame slackenesse of punishment, permitting euery man to tyrannize ouer his companion? {mean_extreme+} Or what differeth extreame prodigalitie, by wasting of all to possesse nothing; from extreame niggardnesse, by hoarding vp all to enjoy nothing; like the Asse that carying victuall on her backe, is like to starue for hunger, and will bee glad of thrissels for her part? And what is betwixt the pride of a glorious Nebuchadnezzar, and the preposterous humilitie of one of the proud Puritanes, claiming to their Paritie, and crying, Wee are all but vile wormes, and yet will iudge and giue Law to their King, but will be iudged nor controlled by none? Surely.  there is more pride vnder such a ones blacke bonnet, then vnder Alexander the great his Diademe, as was said of Diogenes in the like case.
     But aboue all vertues, study to know well your owne craft, which is to rule your people.  And when I say this, I bid you know all crafts:  For except ye know euery one, how can yee controll euery one, which is your proper office? Therefore besides your education, it is necessarie yee delight in reading, and seeking the knowledge of all lawfull things; but with these two restrictions:/2 first, that yee choose idle houres for it, not interrupting therewith the discharge of your office: and next, that yee studie not for knowledge nakedly, but that your principall ende be, to make you able thereby to vse your office;/3 practising according to your knowledge in all the points of your calling:  not like these vaine Astrologians {Prospero+}, that studie night and day on the course of the starres, onely that they may,
1 Arist. 5. aeth. & 1. rhet.; Cicer. pro Caec.   2 Plat. in pol. 5. de Rep. & Epist 7; Cic. ad Q. frat. & de or.   3 Id. 1. de fin. 


for satisfying their curiositie, know their course./1 But since all Artes and sciences are linked euery one with other, their greatest principles agreeing in one (which mooued the Poets to faine the nine Muses to be all sisters) studie them, that out of their harmonie, ye may sucke the knowledge of all faculties; and consequently be on the counsell of all crafts, that yee may be able to containe them all in order, as I haue alreadie said: For knowledge and learning is a light burthen, the weight whereof will neuer presse your shoulders. {liberal_arts+}
     First of all then, study to be well seene in the Scriptures, as I remembred you in the first booke;/2 as well for the knowledge of your owne saluation, as that ye may be able to containe your Church in their calling, as Custos vtriusque Tabula.  For the ruling them well, is no small point of your office; taking specially heede, that they vague not from their text in the Pulpit:  and if euer ye would haue peace in your land, suffer them not to meddle in that place with the estate or policie; but punish seuerely the first that presumeth to it.  Doe nothing towards them without a good ground and warrant, but reason not much with them:  for I haue ouermuch surfeited them with that, and it is not their fashion to yeeld.  And suffer no conuentions nor meetings among Church- men, but by your knowledge and permission.

     Next the Scriptures, studie well your owne Lawes:  for how can ye discerne by the thing yee know not? But preasse to draw all your Lawes and processes, to be as short and plaine as ye can: assure your selfe the longsomnesse both of rights and processes, breedeth their vnsure loosenesse and obscuritie, the shortest being euer both the surest and plainest forme,/3 {PlainDealer+} and the longsomnesse seruing onely for the enriching of the Aduocates and Clerkes, with the spoile of the whole countrey:/4    And therefore delite to haunt your Session, and spie carefully their proceedings; taking good heede, if any briberie may be tried among them, which cannot euer seuerely be punished.  Spare not to goe there, for gracing that farre any that yee fauour, by your presence to procure them expedition of justice; although that should be specially done, for the poore that cannot waite on, or are debarred by mightier parties.  But when yee are there, remember the throne is Gods and not yours, {Antonio+} that ye sit in, and let no fauour, nor whatsoeuer respects mooue you from the right.  Ye sit not there, as I shewe before, for rewarding of friends or seruants, nor for crossing of contemners, but onely for doing of Iustice./5 Learne also wisely to discerne betwixt Iustice and equitie; and for pitie of the poore, rob not the rich, because he may better spare it, but giue the little man the larger coat if it be his; eschewing the errour of young Cyrus/6 therein:  For Iustice, by the Law, giueth euery man his owne; and equitie in things arbitrall, giueth euery one that which is meetest for him.
     Be an ordinarie sitter in your secret Counsell: that Judicature is onely ordained for matters of estate, and repressing of insolent oppressions.  Make that iudge-
1  Id. 1 Offic.   2 Deut. 17.   3 Plat. 4. de Rep. & 6. de Leg.; Arist. 1. rhet.   4 Cic. 1. de Orat.; Sen. in Lud.
5 Plat. in pol.; Arist. 1. Rhet.; Cic. ad Q. frat.; Plut. in Is.   6 Xen. 1. Cyr. 

ment as compendious and plaine as ye can; and suffer no Aduocates to be heard there with their dilatours, but let euery partie tell his owne tale himselfe:  and wearie not to heare the complaints of the oppressed, aut ne Rex sis./1  Remit euery thing to the ordinary Judicature, for eschewing of confusion:  but let it be your owne craft, to take a sharpe account of euery man in his office.
     And next the Lawes, I would haue you to be well versed in authentick histories, and in the Chronicles of all nations, but specially in our owne histories (Ne sis peregrinus domi) the example whereof most neerely concernes you:  I meane not of such infamous inuectiues, as Buchanans or Knoxes Chronicles:  and if any of these infamous libels remaine vntill your dayes, vse the Law vpon the keepers thereof:  For in that point I would haue you a Pythagorist,/2 to thinke that the very spirits of these archibellouses of rebellion, haue made transition in them that hoardes their bookes, or maintaines their opinions; punishing them, euen as it were their authours risen againe./3 But by reading of authenticke histories and Chronicles, yee shall learne experience by Theoricke, applying the bypast things to the present estate, quia nihil nouum sub sole:/4 such is the continuall volubilitie of things earthly, according to the roundnesse of the world, and reuolution of the, heauenly circles:  which is expressed by the wheeles in Ezechiels visions,/5 and counterfeited by the Poets in rota Fortunae+.  And likewise by the knowledge of histories, yee shall knowe how to behaue your selfe to all Embassadours and strangers; being able to discourse with them vpon the estate of their owne countrey.  And among al prophane histories, I must not omit most specially to recommend vnto you, the Commentaries of Caesar; both for the sweete flowing of the stile, as also for the worthinesse of the matter it selfe:  For I haue euer beene of that opinion, that of all the Ethnick Emperors, or great Captaines that euer were, he hath farthest excelled, both in his practise, and in his precepts in martiall affaires.
     As for the studie of other liberall_artes+ and sciences, I would haue you reasonably versed in them, but not preassing to bee a passe-master in any of them:  for that cannot but distract you from the points of your calling, as I shewed you before:/6 and when, by the enemie winning the towne, yee shall bee interrupted in your demonstration, as Archimedes/7 was; your people (I thinke) will looke very bluntly vpon it.  I graunt it is meete yee haue some entrance, specially in the Mathematickes; for the knowledge of the arte militarie, in situation of Campes, ordering of battels, making Fortifications, placing of batteries, or such like./8 And let not this your knowledge be dead without fruites, as Saint Iames speaketh of Faith:  but let it appeare in your daily conuersation, and in all the actions of your life./9
1 Cic. ad Q. frat.; Tac. 1. hist.; Plut. in Demet.   2 Plat. in Menon.  3 Arist. 1. Rhet.; Polit. 1; Plut. in Timo.; Cic. 2. de Or.
4 Eccles. 1. 5 Ezech. 1.   6 Sen. ep. 84.   7 Liu. 1. 24; Plut. in Marc.   8 Pl. 7. de leg.; Arist. 2. Meta.   9 Iam. 2.17. 

     Embrace trew magnanimitie, not in beeing vindictiue, which the corrupted iudgements of the world thinke to be trew Magnanimitie/1 but by the contrarie, in thinking your offendour not worthie of your wrath, empyring ouer your owne passion, and triumphing in the commaunding your selfe to forgiue:/2 {Prospero+}  husbanding the effects of your courage and wrath, to be rightly employed vpon repelling of injuries within, by reuenge taking vpon the oppressours; and in reuenging iniuries without, by iust warres vpon forraine enemies.  And so, where ye finde a notable iniurie, spare not to giue course to the torrents of your wrath.  The wrath+ of a King, is like to the roaring of a Lyon./3
      Foster trew Humilitie, in bannishing pride, not onely towards God (considering yee differ not in stuffs, but in vse, and that onely by his ordinance, from the basest of your people) but also towards your Parents./4  And if it fall out that my Wife shall out-liue me, as euer ye thinke to purchase my blessing, honour your mother:  set Beersheba in a throne on your right hand:  offend her for nothing, much lesse wrong her:  remember her
      Quae longa decem tulerit fastidia menses; and that your flesh and blood is made of hers:  and beginne not, like the young lordes and lairdes, your first warres vpon your Mother; but presse earnestly to deserue her blessing.  Neither deceiue your selfe with many that say, they care not for their Parents curse, so they deserue it not. O inuert not the order of nature, by iudging your superiours, chiefly in your owne particular! But assure your selfe, the blessing or curse of the Parents, hath almost euer a Propheticke power ioyned with it:  and if there were no more, honour your Parents, for the lengthning of your owne dayes, as GOD in his Law/5 promiseth.  Honour also them that are in loco Parentum vnto you, such as your gouemours, vp-bringers, and Praeceptours:/6 be thankefull vnto them and reward them, which is your dewtie and honour.
     But on the other part, let not this trew humilitie stay your high indignation to appeare, when any great oppressours shall presume to come in your presence;/7 then frowne as ye ought:  And in-case thay vse a colour of Law in oppressing their poore ones, as ouer-many doe, that which ye cannot mend by Law, mend by the withdrawing of your countenance from them:/8 and once in the yeere crosse them, when their erands come in your way, recompencing the oppressour, according to Christs parable of the two debtours./9
      Keepe trew Constancie, not onely in your kindenesse towards honest men; but being also inuicti animi against all aduersities:  not with that Stoicke+ insensible stupiditie, wherewith many in our dayes, preassing to winne honour, in imitating that ancient sect, by their inconstant behauiour in their owne liues, belie their
1 Arist. 4. eth. Sen. de cl.   2 Cic. 1. off.; Virg. 6. AEn.   3 Prou. 20.   4 Plat. 4. de Leg.; Xen. 2. de dict. & fact. Soc.
5 Exod. 20.   6 Xen. 1. & 3. Cyr.   7 Cic. ad Q. frat.   8 Arist. 5. pol.   9 Matth. 18. 

profession./1 But although ye are not a stocke, {stoic_unfeeling+} not to feele calamities; yet let not the feeling of them, so ouer-rule and doazen your reason, as may stay you from taking and vsing the best resolution for remedie, that can be found out.
     Vse trew Liberalitie in rewarding the good, and bestowing frankly for your honour and weale: but with that proportionall discretion, that euery man may be serued according to his measure, wherein respect must be had to his ranke, deserts, and necessitie:  And prouide how to haue, but cast not away without cause.  In speciall, empaire not by your Liberalitie the ordinarie rents of your crowne whereby the estate Royall of you, and your successours, must be maintained, ne exhaurias fontem liberalitatis:  for that would euer be kept sacrosanctum & extra commercium:/2 otherwaies, your Liberalitie would decline to Prodigalitie, in helping others with your, and your successours hurt.  And aboue all, enrich not your selfe with exactions vpon your subjects; but thinke the riches of your people your best treasure, by the sinnes of offenders, where no praeuention can auaile, making iustly your commoditie./3 And in-case necessitie of warres, or other extraordinaries compell you to lift Subsidies, doe it as rarely as ye can:  employing it onely to the vse it was ordained for; and vsing your selfe in that case, as fidus depositarius to your people./4
      And principally, exercise trew Wisedome; in discerning wisely betwixt trew and false reports:  First, considering the nature of the person reporter; Next, what entresse he can haue in the weale or euill of him, of whom hee maketh the report; Thirdly, the likely-hood of the purpose it selfe; And, last, the nature and by-past life of the dilated person:  and where yee finde a tratler, away with him./5 And although it bee true, that a Prince can neuer without secrecie doe great things, yet it is better ofttimes to try reports, then by credulitie to foster suspicion vpon an honest man.  For since suspition is the Tyrants+ sickenesse, as the fruites of an euill Conscience, potius in alteram partem peccato:/6 I meane, in not mistrusting one, whom-to no such vnhonestie was knowne before.  But as for such as haue slipped before, former experience may iustly breed praeuention by fore-sight.
     And to conclude my aduice anent your behauiour in your person; consider that GOD is the authour of all vertue, hauing imprinted in mens mindes by the very light of nature, the loue of all morall vertues; as was seene by the vertuous liues of the old Romanes: {Roman_Christian+}/7 and preasse then to shine as farre before your people, in all vertue and honestie; as in greatnesse of ranke:  that the vse thereof in all your actions, may turne, with time, to a naturall habitude in you; and as by their hearing of your Lawes, so by their sight of your person, both their eyes and their eares, may leade and allure them to the loue of vertue, and hatred of vice.
1 Arist. 4. Aeth.; Thuc. 3. 6; Cic. 1. Of. & ad Q.f.; Brut. ad Cic.   2 Cic. 1. & 2. Of.; Sal. in Iug.; Sen. 4. de ben.   3 Isoc. epist.  7; Xen. 8. Cyr.; Phil. Com. 10.   4 Arist. 5. pol.5 Isocr. ad Ph. in Panath. & de per.; Cic. ad Q.fr.; Plut. de cursos.
6 Isoc. de pac.; Cic. 3. Of.   7 Cicer. 3. Tusc. 



     IT is a trew old saying, That a King is as one set on a stage, whose smallest actions and gestures, all the peoplle gazingly doe behold:/1 and therefore although a King be neuer so precise in the discharging of his Office, the people, who seeth but the outward part, will euer iudge of the substance, by the circumstances;/2 and according to the outward appearance, if his behauiour bee light or dissolute, will conceiue prae-occupied conceits of the Kings inward intention:  which although with time, (the trier of all trewth,) it will euanish, by the euidence of the contrary effects, yet interim patitur iustus; and praeiudged conceits will, in the meane time, breed contempt, the mother of rebellion and disorder./3 And besides that, it is certaine, that all the indifferent actions and behauiour of a man, haue a certaine holding and dependance, either vpon vertue or vice, according as they are vsed or ruled:/4 for there is not a middes betwixt them, no more then betwixt their rewards, heauen and hell.
     Be carefull then, my Sonne, so to frame all your indifferent actions and outward behauiour, as they may serue for the furtherance and forth-setting of your inward vertuous disposition.
     The whole indifferent actions of a man, I deuide in two sorts:  in his behauiour in things necessary, as food, sleeping, raiment, speaking, writing, and gesture; and in things not necessary, though conuenient and lawfull, as pastimes or exercises, and vsing of company for recreation.
     As to the indifferent things necessary, although that of themselues they cannot bee wanted, and so in that case are not indifferent; as likewise in-case they bee not vsed with moderation+, declining so to the extremitie, which is vice; yet the qualitie and forme of vsing them, may smell of vertue or vice, and be great furtherers to any of them.
     To beginne then at the things necessarie; one of the publickest indifferent actions of a King, and that maniest, especially strangers, will narrowly take heed to; is his maner of refection at his Table, and his behauiour thereat.  Therefore, as Kings vse oft to eate publickly, it is meete and honourable that ye also doe so, as well to eschew the opinion that yee loue not to haunt companie, which is one of the markes of a Tyrant+;/5 as likewise, that your delight to eate priuatlie, be not thought to be for private satisfying of your gluttonie; hich ye would be ashamed should bee publicklie seene.  Let your Table bee honourably serued; but serue your appetite with few dishes, as yong Cyrus/6 did:  which both is holesommest, and freest from the vice of delicacie, which is a degree of gluttonie./7 {PlainDealer+} And vse most to eate of reasonablie-grosse, and common-meates; aswell for making your
1 C.  ph. 8. 3. de leg. Ouid. ad Liu.   2 Quin. 4. decl.   3 Arist. 5. pol. 4 Plato in Phil. & 9. de leg.   5 Xen. in Cyr.
6 Xen. 1. Cyr.   7 Plut. in Apoth. 


bodie strong and durable for trauell at all occasions either in peace or in warre:  as that yee may bee the heartlier receiued by your meane Subiects in their houses, when their cheare may suffice you:  which otherwayes would be imputed to you for pride and daintinesse, and breed coldnesse and disdaine in them.  Let all your food bee simple, without composition or sauces; which are more like medecines then meate./1 The vsing of them was counted amongst the ancient Romanes a filthie vice of delicacie; because they serue onely for pleasing of the taste, and not for satisfying of the necessitie of nature; abhorring Apicius/2 their owne citizen, for his vice of delicacie and monsterous gluttonie.  Like as both the Grecians and Romanes had in detestation the very name of Philoxenus,/3 for his filthie wish of a Crane-craig. And therefore was that sentence vsed amongst them, against these artificiall false appetites, optimum condimentum fames./4{PlainDealer+}  But beware with vsing excesse of meat and drinke; and chiefly, beware of drunkennesse, which is a beastlie vice, namely in a King:  but specially beware with it, because it is one of those vices that increaseth with aage.  In the forme of your meate-eating, bee neither vnciuill, like a grosse Cynicke; nor affectatlie mignarde, like a daintie dame; but eate in a manlie, round, and honest fashion./5 It is no wayes comely to dispatch affaires, or to be pensiue at meate:  but keepe then an open and cheerefull countenance, causing to reade pleasant histories vnto you, that profite may be mixed with pleasure: and when ye are not disposed, entertaine pleasant, quicke, but honest discourses.
     And because meat prouoketh sleeping, be also moderate in your sleepe;/6 for it goeth much by use:  and remember that if your whole life were deuided in four parts, three of them would be found to be consumed on meat, drinke, sleepe, and vnnecessarie occupations.
     But albeit ordinarie times would commonly bee kept in meate and sleepe, yet vse your selfe some-times so, that any time in the foure and twentie houres may bee alike to you for any of them; that thereby your diet may be accommodate to your affaires, and not your affaires to your diet:/7 not therefore vsing your selfe to ouer great softnesse and delicacie in your sleepe, more then in your meate; and specially in-case yee haue adoe with the warres.
     Let not your Chalmer be throng and common in the time of your rest, aswell for comelinesse as for eschewing of carrying reports out of the same.  Let them that haue the credite to serue in your Chalmer, be trustie and secret; for a King will haue need to vse secrecie in may things:/8 but yet behaue your selfe so in your greatest secrets, as yee neede not bee ashamed, suppose they were all proclaimed at the mercate crosse:/9 But specially see that those of your Chalmer be of a sound fame, and without blemish.
1 Sen. ep. 96.   2 Sen. de consol. ad Alb.; Iuuen. sat. 2.   6 Pla. 7. de leg.   3 Arist. 4. eth.   4 Xen. de dict. & fact. Socr.; Laert. in Socr.; Cic. 5. Tus.; Plat. 6. de Leg.; Plin. 1. 14.   5 Cic. 1. Off.   6 Pla. 7. de leg.   7 Pla. 6. de leg.
8 Val. 2; Cur. 4.   9 Pla. 6. de leg. 


     Take no heede to any of your dreames, for all prophecies, visions, and propheticke dreames are accomplished and ceased in Christ:  And therefore take no heede to freets either in dreames, or any other things; for that errour proceedeth of ignorance, and is vnworthy of a Christian, who should be assured, Omnia esse pura puris,/1 as Paul sayth; all dayes and meates being alike to Christians./2
      Next followeth to speake of raiment, the on-putting whereof is the ordinarie action that followeth next to sleepe./3 Be also moderate in your raiment, neither ouer superfluous, like a deboshed waster; nor yet ouer base, like a miserable wretch; not artificially trimmed and decked, like a Courtizane, nor yet ouer sluggishly clothed, like a countrey clowne, not ouer lightly like a Candie souldier or a vaine young Courtier; nor yet ouer grauely, like a Minister:  but in your garments be proper, cleanely, comely and honest, wearing your clothes, in a carelesse, yet comely forme: {PlainDealer+} keeping in them a middle forme, inter Togatos & Paludatos,/4 betwixt the grauitie of the one and lightnesse of the other: thereby to signifie, that by your calling yee are mixed of both the professions; Togatus, as a Iudge making and pronouncing the Law;/5 Paludatus, by the power of the sword:  as your office is likewise mixed, betwixt the Ecclesiasticall and ciuill estate:  For a King is not mere laicus, as both the Popists and Anabaptists would haue him, to the which error also the Puritanes incline ouer farre.  But to returne to the purpose of garments, they ought to be vsed according to their first institution by God, which was for three causes: first to hide our nakednesse and shame; next and consequently, to make vs more comely, and thirdly, to preserue vs from the injuries of heate and colde. {Lear+} If to hide our nakednesse and shamefull parts, then these naturall parts ordained to be hid, should not be represented by any vndecent formes in the cloathes:  and,if they should helpe our comelinesse, they should not then by their painted preened fashion, serue for baites to filthie lecherie, as false haire and fairding does amongst vnchast women:  and if they should preserue vs from the injuries of heat and colde, men should not, like senselesse stones, contemne God, in lightlying the seasons, glorying to conquere honour on heate and colde.  And although it be praise-worthy and necessarie in a Prince, to be patiens algoris &, aestus, when he shall haue adoe with warres vpon the fields; yet I thinke it meeter that ye goe both cloathed and armed, then naked to the battell, except you would make you light for away-running:  and yet for cowards, metus addit alas. And shortly, in your cloathes keepe a proportion, aswell with the seasons of the yeere, as of your aage:  in the fashions of them being carelesse, vsing them according to the common forme of the time, sometimes richlier, some-times meanlier cloathed, as occasion serueth, without keeping any precise+ rule therein:/6 For if your mind be found occupied vpon them, it wil be thought idle otherwaies, and ye shall bee accounted in the number of one of these comptiiuuenes;/7 which wil make your spirit and iudgment to be lcsse thought of.  But
1 Rom. 14.   2 Titus 1.   3 Isocr. de reg.   4 Cic. 1. Offic.   5  Plat. de rege.   6 Cic. 1. Off.   7 Ar. ad Alex. 


specially eschew to be effeminate+ in your cloathes, in perfuming, preening, or such like:  and faile neuer in time of warres to bee galliardest and brauest, both in cloathes and countenance.  And make not a foole of yourselfe in disguising or wearing long haire or nailes, which are but excrements of nature, and bewray such misusers of them, to bee either of a vindictiue, or a vaine light naturall.  Especially, make no vowes in such vaine and outward things, as concerne either meate or cloathes.
     Let your selfe and all your Court weare no ordinarie armour with your cloathes, but such as is knightly and honourable; I meane rapier-swordes, and daggers:  For tuilyesome weapons in the Court, betokens confusion in the countrey.  And therefore bannish not onely from your Court, all traiterous offensiue weapons, forbidden by the Lawes, as guns and such like (whereof I spake alreadie) but also all traiterous defensiue armes, as secrets, platesleeues, and such like vnseene armour:  For, besides that the wearers thereof, may be presupposed to haue a secret euill intention, they want both the vses that defensiue armour is ordained for; which is, to be able to holde out violence, and by their outward glaunsing in their enemies eyes, to strike a terrour in their hearts:  Where by the contrary, they can serue for neither, being not onely vnable to resist, but dangerous for shots, and giuing no outward showe against the enemie; beeing onely ordained, for betraying vnder trust, whereof honest men should be ashamed to beare the outward badge, not resembling the thing they are not.  And for answere against these arguments, I know none but the olde Scots fashion; which if it be wrong, is no more to be allowed for ancientnesse, then the olde Masse is, which also our forefathers vsed.
     The next thing that yee haue to take heed to, is your speaking and language; whereunto I ioyne your gesture, since action is one of the chiefest qualities, that is required in an oratour:/1 for as the tongue speaketh to the eares, so doeth the gesture speake to the eyes of the auditour./2 In both your speaking and your gesture, vse a naturall and plaine+ forme, not fairded with artifice:/3 for (as the French-men say) Rien contre-faict fin:  but eschew all affectate formes in both.
     In your language be plaine, honest, naturall, comely, cleane, short, and sententious, eschewing both the extremities, aswell in not vsing any rusticall corrupt leide, as booke-language, and pen and inke-horne termes:/4 and least of all mignard and effoeminate tearmes. But let the greatest part of your eloquence consist in a naturall, cleare, and sensible forme of the deliuerie of your minde, builded euer vpon certaine and good grounds;/5 tempering it with grauitie, quickenesse, or merinesse, according to the subiect, and occasion of the time; not taunting in Theologie, nor alleadging and prophaning the Scripture in drinking purposes, as ouer many doe.
1 Arist. 3. ad Theod.   2 Cic. in orat. ad Q. frat. & ad Bren.  3 Cic. i. Offic.   4 Id. eod.   5 Cic. ad Q. frat. & ad Brut. 


Vse also the like forme in your gesture; neither looking sillily, like a stupide pedant+;/1 nor vnsetledly, with an vncouth morgue, like a new-comeouer Cavalier:  but let your behauiour be naturall, graue, and according to the fashion of the countrey./2 Be not ouer-sparing in your courtesies, for that will be imputed to inciuilitie and arrogancie:/3 nor yet ouer prodigall in iowking or nodding at euery step:  for that forme of being popular, becommeth better aspiring Absalons, then lawfull Kings:/4 framing euer your gesture according to your present actions:/5 looking grauely and with a maiestie when yee sit in iudgement, or giue audience to Embassadours, homely, when ye are in priuate with your owne seruants; manly, when ye are at any pastime or merrie discourse; and let your countenance smell of courage and magnanimitie when ye are at the warres.  And remember (I say ouer againe) to be plaine+ and sensible in your language:/6 for besides that it is the tongues office, to be the messenger of the mind, it may be thought a point of imbecillitie of spirit in a King, to speake obscurely, much more vntrewly; as if he stood in awe of any in vttering his thoughts./7
     Remember also, to put a difference betwixt your forme of language in reasoning, and your pronouncing of sentences, or declaratour of your wil in iudgement, or any other waies in the points of your office:/8 For in the former case, yee must reason pleasantly and patiently, not like a king, but like a priuate man and a scholer; otherwaies, your impatience of contradiction will be interpreted to be for lacke of reason on your part.  Where in the points of your office, ye should ripely aduise indeede, before yee giue foorth your sentence:  but fra it be giuen foorth, the suffering of any contradiction diminisheth the maiestie of your authoritie, and maketh the processes endelesse./9 The like forme would also bee obserued by all your inferiour Iudges and Magistrates./10
      Now as to your writing, which is nothing else, but a forme of enregistrate speech; vse a plaine, short, but stately stile, both in your Proclamations and missiues, especially to forraine Princes.  And if your engine spur you to write any workes, either in verse or in prose, I cannot but allow you to practise it:  but take no longsome workes in hand, for distracting you from your calling.{Prospero+}
     Flatter not your selfe in your labours, but before they bee set foorth, let them first bee priuily censured by some of the best skilled men in that craft, that in these workes yee meddle with./11  And because your writes will remaine as true pictures of your minde, to all posterities; let them bee free of all vncomelinesse and vn-honestie: and according to Horace his counsell
      - Nonumquam premantur in annum./12
1 Idem. i. Off.   2 Phil, ad Alex.   3 CiC. 2. Off.   4 Arist. 4. aeth. 5 Cic. ad At.   6 Isoc. de reg. & in Euagr.   7 Cic. 3. Off.
8 Id. 1. Off.    9 Isoc. ad Nic.  10 Cic. ad Q. frat.  11 Cic. i. Off.  12 De arte Poetica. 


I meane both your verse and your prose letting first that furie and heate wherewith they were written, coole at leasure; and then as an vncouth iudge and censour, reuising them ouer againe, before they bee published,

      --- quia nescit vox missa reuerti./1

     If yee would write worthily, choose subiects worthie of you, that bee not full of vanitie, but of vertue; eschewing obscuritie, and delighting euer to bee plaine+ and sensible. And if yee write in verse, remember that it is not the principall part of a Poeme to rime right, and flowe well with many pretie wordes:  but the chiefe commendation of a Poeme is, that when the verse shall bee shaken sundrie in prose, it shall bee found so rich in quicke inuentions, and poeticke flowers, and in faire and pertinent comparisons; as it shall retaine the lustre of a Poeme, although in prose./2 And I would also aduise you to write in your owne language:  for there is nothing left to be saide in Greeke and Latine alreadie; and ynew of poore schollers would match you in these languages; and besides that, it best becommeth a King to purifie and make famous his owne tongue; wherein he may goe before all his subjects; as it setteth him well to doe in all honest and lawfull things.
     And amongst all vnnecessarie things that are lawfull and expedient, I thinke exercises of the bodie most commendable to be vsed by a young Prince, in such honest games or pastimes, as may further abilitie and maintaine health:/3 For albeit I graunt it to be most requisite for a King to exercise his engine, which surely with idlenesse will ruste and become blunt; yet certainely bodily exercises and games are very commendable;/4 as well for bannishing of idlenesse (the mother of all vice) as for making his bodie able and durable for trauell, which is very necessarie for a King./5 But from this count I debarre all rough and violent exercises, as the footeball; meeter for laming, then making able the vsers thereof:/6 as likewise such tumbling trickes as only serue for Comoedians and Balladines, to win their bread with.  But the exercises that I would haue you to vse (although but moderately, not making a craft of them) {amateur+} are running, leaping, wrastling, fencing, dancing, and playing at the caitch or tennise, archerie, palle maille, and such like other faire and pleasant fieldgames./7 And the honourablest and most commendable games that yee can vse, are on horsebacks:/8 for it becommeth a Prince best of any man, to be a faire and good horse-man./9 Vse therefore to ride and danton great and couragious horses; that I may say of you, as Philip said of great Alexander his sonne, Maicebovta ob ce xcopc.^t/10 And specially vse such games on horse-backe, as may teach you to handle your armes thereon; such as the.tilt, the ring, and low-riding for handling of your sword.
     I cannot omit heere the hunting, namely with running hounds; which is the most honourable and noblest sorte thereof: for it is a theeuish forme of hunting
1 Idem eod.   2 Ar. de art. Poet.   3 Xen. 1. Cyr.   4 Plat. 6. de leg. 5 Ar. 7. & 8. pol.   6 Cic. 1. Off.   7 Pl. eod.
 8 Xen. in Cyr.   9 Is. de iug. 10 Plut. in Alex. 


to shoote with gunnes and bowes; and greyhound hunting is not so martiall a game:  But because I would not be thought a partiall praiser of this sport, I remit yon to Xenophon,/1 an olde and famous writer, who had no minde of flattering you or me in this purpose:  and who also setteth downe a faire paterne, for the education of a yong king, vnder the supposed name of Cyrus./2
      As for hawking I condemne it not, but I must praise it more sparingly, because it neither resembleth the warres so neere as hunting doeth, in making a man hardier and skilfully ridden in all grounds, and is more vncertaine and subiect to mischances; and (which is worst of all) is therethrough an extreme stirrer vp of passions:  But in vsing either of these games, obserue that moderation, that ye slip not therewith the houres appointed for your affaires, which ye ought euer precisely to keepe;/3 remembring that these games are but ordained for you, in enabling you for your office, for the which ye are ordained.
     And as for sitting house-pastimes, wherewith men by drilling time, spurre a free and fast ynough running horse (as the prouerbe is) although they are not profitable for the exercise either of minde or body,/4 yet can I not vtterly condemne them; since they may at times supply the roome, which being emptie, would be patent to pernicious idlenesse, quia nihil potest esse vacuum./5 I will not therefore agree with the curiositie of some learned men in our aage, in forbidding cardes, dice, and other such like games of hazard; although otherwayes surely I reuerence them as notable and godly men:  For they are deceiued therein, in founding their argument vpon a mistaken ground, which is, that the playing at such games, is a kind of casting of lot, and therefore vnlawfuh; wherein they deceiue themselues:  For the casting of lot was vsed for triall of the trewth in any obscure thing, that otherwayes could not be gotten cleared; and therefore was a sort of prophecie:  where by the contrary, no man goeth to any of these playes, to cleare any obscure trewth, but onely to gage so much of his owne money, as hee pleaseth, vpon the hazard of the running of the cardes or dice, aswell as he would doe vpon the speede of a horse or a dog, or any such like gaigeour:  And so, if they be vnlawfull, all gaigeours vpon vncertainties must likewayes be condemned:  Not that thereby I take the defence of vaine carders and dicers, that waste their moyen, and their time (whereof fewe consider the pretiousnesse) vpon prodigall and continuall playing:/6 no, I would rather allow it to be discharged, where such corruption cannot be eschewed.  But only I cannot condemne you at some times, when ye haue no other thing adoe (as a good King will be seldome) and are wearie of reading, or euill disposed in your person, and when it is foule and stormie weather; then, say, may ye lawfully play at the cardes or tables:  For as to dicing, I thinke it becommeth best deboshed souldiers to play at, on the head of their drums, being onely ruled by hazard, and subiect to knauish cogging.  And as for the chesse+, I thinke it ouer fond, because it is ouer-wise and Philosophicke a folly.  For where
1 In Cyn. i. Cyr. & de rep. Lac.; Cic. 1. Offic.   2 Cyropoedia. 3 Arist. 10. Eth.   4 Arist. 8. pol.  5 Dan. de lus. al.
6 Cic. 1. Offic. 


all such light playes, are ordained to free mens heads for a time, from the fashious thoughts on their affaires; it by the contrarie falleth and troubleth mens heads, with as many fashious toyes of the play, as before it was filled with thoughts on his affaires.
     But in your playing, I would haue you to keepe three rules: first, or ye play, consider yee doe it onely for your recreation, and resolue to hazard the losse of all that ye play; and next, for that cause play no more then yee care to cast among Pages:  and last, play alwaies faire play precisely, that ye come not in vse of tricking and lying in least:  otherwise, if yee cannot keepe these rules, my counsell is that yee allutterly abstaine from these playes:  For neither a madde passion for losse, nor falshood vsed for desire of gaine, can be called a play.
     Now, it is not onely lawfull, but necessarie, that yee haue companie meete for euery thing yee take on hand, as well in your games and exercises, as in your graue and earnest affaires:  But learne to distinguish time according to the occasion, choosing your companie accordingly./1 Conferre not with hunters at your counsell, nor in your counsell affaires; nor dispatch not affaires at hunting or other games. And haue the like respect to the seasons of your aage, vsing your sortes of recreation and companie therefore, agreeing thereunto:  For it becommeth best, as kindliest, euery aage to smell of their owne qualitie, insolence and vnlawful things beeing alwaies eschewed/2 and not that a colt, should draw the plough, and an olde horse run away with the harrowes.  But take heede specially, that your companie for recreation, be chosen of honest persons, not defamed or vicious, mixing filthie talke with merrinesse,
      Corrumpunt bonos mores colloquia praua. And chiefly abstaine from haunting before your mariage, the idle companie of dames, which are nothing else, but irritamenta libidinis.  Bee warre likewaies to abuse your selfe, in making your sporters your counsellers: and delight not to keepe ordinarily in your companie, Comoedians or Balladines:/3 for the Tyrans delighted most in them, glorying to bee both authors and actors of Comoedies and Tragedies themselues:  Whereupon the answere that the poet Philoxenus disdainfully gaue to the Tyran of Syracuse there-anent, is now come in a prouerbe, reduc me in latomias./4  And all the ruse that Nero made of himselfe when he died, was Qualis artifex pereo?/5 meaning of his skill in menstrally, and playing of Tragoedies; as indeede his whole life and death, was all but one Tragoedie.
     Delight not also to bee in your owne person a player vpon instruments; especially on such as commonly men winne their liuing with:  nor yet to be fine of any mechanicke craft: {amateur+} Leur esprit s'en fuit au bout des doists, saith Du Bartas:  whose workes, as they are all most worthie to bee read by any Prince, or other good Christian; so would I especially wish you to bee well versed in them.  But
1 Isoc. de reg.; Cic. 1.  Off.   2 Ar. 2.  ad Theod.   3 Pl. 3. de rep.; Ar. 7. & 8.  Pol.; Sen. 1.  ep.  Dyon.   4 Suidas.
5 Suet. in Ner.   6 1. Sep.


spare not some-times by merie company, to be free from importunitie; for ye should be euer mooved with reason, which is the onely qualitie whereby men differ from beasts; and not with importunitie:/1 For the which cause (as also for augmenting your Maiestie) ye shall not be so facile of accesse-giuing at all times, as I haue beene; and yet not altogether retired/2 or locked vp,/3 like the Kings of Persia; appointing also certaine houres for publicke audience./4
      And since my trust is, that God hath ordained you for moe Kingdomes then this (as I haue oft alreadie said) preasse by the outward behauiour as well of your owne person, as of your court, in all indifferent things, to allure piece and piece, the rest of your kingdomes, to follow the fashions of that kingdome of yours, that yee finde most ciuill, easiest to be ruled, and most obedient to the Lawes: for these outward and indifferent things will serue greatly for allurements to the people, to embrace and follow vertue.  But beware of thrawing or constraining them thereto; letting it bee brought on with time, and at leisure; specially by so mixing through alliance and daily conuersation, the inhabitants of euery kingdom with other, as may with time make them to grow and welde all in one:  Which may easily be done betwixt these two nations, being both but one Ile of Britaine, and alreadie ioyned in vnitie of Religion and language.  So that euen as in the times of our ancestours, the long warres and many bloodie battels betwixt these two countreys, bred a naturall and hereditarie hatred in euery of them, against the other: the vniting and welding of them hereafter in one, by all sort of friendship, commerce, and alliance, will by the contrary produce and maintaine a naturall and inseparable vnitie of loue amongst them.  As we haue already (praise be to God) a great experience of the good beginning hereof, and of the quenching of the olde hate in the hearts of both the people; procured by the meanes of this long and happy amitie, betweene the Queene my dearest sister and me; which during the whole time of both our Reignes, hath euer beene inuiolably obserued.
     And for conclusion of this my whole Treatise, remember my Sonne, by your trew and constant depending vpon God, to looke for a blessing to all your actions in your office:  by the outward vsing thereof, to testifie the inward vprightnesse of your heart; and by your behauiour in all indifferent things, to set foorth the viue unage of your vertuous disposition; and in respect of the greatnesse and weight of your burthen, to be patient in hearing, keeping your heart free from preoccupation, ripe in concluding, and constant in your resolution:/5 For better it is to bide at your resolution, although there were some defect in it, then by daily changing, to effectuate nothing:/6 taking the paterne thereof from the microcosme of your owne body; wherein ye haue two eyes, signifying great foresight and prouidence, with a narrow looking in all things; and also two eares, signifying patient hearing, and that of both the parties: but ye haue but one tongue, for pronouncing a plaine+, sensible, and vniforme sentence; and but one head, and
1 Curt. 8.  2 Liu. 35.  3 Xen.  in Ages.  4 Cic.  ad Q. frat.  5 Thuc. 6.   6 Dion. 52. 


one heart, for keeping a constant & vniforme resolution, according to your apprehension:  hauing two hands and two feete, with many fingers and toes for quicke execution, in employing all instruments meet for effectuating your deliberations.
     But forget not to digest euer your passion+, before ye determine vpon anything, since Ira furor breuis est: /1 vttering onely your anger according to the Apostles rule, Irascimini, sed ne peccetis:/2 taking pleasure, not only to reward, but to aduance the good, which is a chiefe point of a King's glory (but make none ouer-great, but according as the power of the countrey may beare) and punishing the euill; but euery man according to his owne offence:/3 not punishing nor blaming the father for the sonne, nor the brother for the brother;/4 much lesse generally to hate a whole race for the fault of one:  for noxa caput sequitur./5 And aboue all, let the measure of your loue to euery one, be according to the measure of his vertue; letting your fauour to be no longer tyed to any, then the continuance of his vertuous disposition shall deserue:  not admitting the excuse vpon a iust reuenge, to procure ouersight to an iniurie:  For the first iniurie is committed against the partie; but the parties reuenging thereof at his owne hand, is a wrong committed against you, in vsurping your office, whom-to onely the sword belongeth, for reuenging of all the injuries committed against any of your people.
     Thus hoping in the goodnes of God, that your naturall inclination shall haue a happy sympathie with these precepts, making the wise-mans scholemaster, which is the example of others, to bee your teacher, according to that old verse,
      Felix quem faciunt aliena pericula cautum; eschewing so the ouer-late repentance by your owne experience, which is the schoole-master of fooles; I wil for end of all, require you my Sonne, as euer ye thinke to deserue my father+ly blessing, to keepe continually before the eyes of your minde, the greatnesse of your charge:/6 making the faithfull and due discharge thereof, the principal butt ye shoot at in all your actions:/7 counting it euer the principall, and all your other actions but as accessories, to be emploied as middesses for the furthering of that principall.  And being content to let others excell in other things, let it be your chiefest earthly glory, to excell in your owne craft:  according to the worthy counsel and charge of Anchises to his posteritie, in that sublime and heroicall Poet, wherein also my dicton is included;

      Excudent alij spirantia mollius era,
      Credo equidem, & viuos ducent de marmore vultus,
      Orabunt causas melius, caelique meatus
      Describent radio, & surgentia sydera dicent.
      Tu, regere imperio populos, Romane, memento
      (Hae tibi erunt artes) pacique imponere morem,
      Parcere subiectis, & debellare superbos./8

1 Hor. lib. 1. epist.  2 Ephes. 4.  3 Arist. 5. pol.     4 Dion. 52.   5 Plat. 9. de leg.   6 Plat. in pol.   7 Cic. 5. de rep.
8 Virg 6. AEn. 

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